Overview

Toxic shock syndrome is a rare, life-threatening complication of certain types of bacterial infections. Often toxic shock syndrome outcomes from toxins developed by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, however the problem might additionally be brought about by toxins produced by team A streptococcus (strep) bacteria.

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Toxic shock syndrome can influence anyone, consisting of men, kids and postmenopausal women. Risk determinants for toxic shock syndrome include skin wounds, surgery, and the use of tampons and various other devices, such as menstrual cups, contraceptive sponges or diaphragms.


Symptoms

Possible indications and also symptoms of toxic shock syndrome include:

A sudden high fever Low blood press Vomiting or diarrhea A rash resembling a sunburn, especially on your palms and also soles Confusion Muscle aches Redness of your eyes, mouth and also throat Seizures Headaches

When to check out a doctor

Call your doctor instantly if you have actually signs or symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. This is particularly crucial if you"ve freshly supplied tampons or if you have actually a skin or wound infection.


Causes

Most typically, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria reason toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome can additionally be brought about by team A streptococcus (strep) bacteria.

Risk factors

Toxic shock syndrome deserve to influence anyone. About fifty percent the situations of toxic shock syndrome linked via staphylococci bacteria happen in women of menstruating age; the remainder occur in older woguys, males and children. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurs in civilization of all ages.

Toxic shock syndrome has actually been connected with:

Having cuts or burns on your skin Having had actually current surgical treatment Using contraceptive sponges, diaphragms, superabsorbent tampons or menstrual cups Having a viral infection, such as the flu or chickenpox

Complications

Toxic shock syndrome can progression swiftly. Complications may include:

Shock Renal faiattract Death

Prevention

Manufacturers of tampons sold in the United States no much longer usage the materials or designs that were associated via toxic shock syndrome. Also, the UNITED STATE Food and also Drug Administration calls for manufacturers to usage conventional measurement and also labeling for absorbency and to print guidelines on the boxes.

If you usage tampons, review the labels and also use the lowest absorbency tampon you deserve to. Change tampons typically, at least eextremely 4 to eight hrs. Alternate utilizing tampons and sanitary napkins, and also use minipads once your flow is light.

Toxic shock syndrome have the right to recur. People who"ve had actually it when deserve to gain it aget. If you"ve had toxic shock syndrome or a prior severe staph or strep infection, don"t use tampons.

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Kellerman RD, et al. Toxic shock syndrome. In: Conn"s Current Therapy 2020. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalvital.com. Accessed Feb. 6, 2020. Toxic shock syndrome. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/gram-positive-cocci/toxic-shock-syndrome-tss. Accessed Feb. 5, 2020. Nonfoux L, et al. Impact of presently marketed tampons and also menstrual cups on Staphylococcus aureus expansion and also toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production in vitro. Applied and also Environmental Microbiology. 2018; doi:10.1128/AEM.00351-18. Cohen J, et al. Dermatologic manifestations of systemic infections. In: Infectious Diseases. fourth ed. Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalvital.com. Accessed Feb. 5, 2020. The facts on tampons — and also how to use them safely. UNITED STATE Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/facts-tampons-and-how-use-them-safely. Accessed Feb. 6, 2020.