*

This content is taken from our book, Managing Pig Health, the sector leading pig publication. Available now from 5mBooks.com


A healthy and balanced useful well-developed udder is vital to piglet survival not only to provide colostrum and also milk but additionally to provide all the piglets simple teat accessibility.

Teat and udder conformation

Tright here are two basic determinants that decide whether a sow deserve to rear 12 or more pigs; initially whether all piglets are able to obtain accessibility to teats and also second whether they have the right to suck milk easily from them. These may seem obvious but just how seriously are they taken into consideration once the gilt is being selected? It is not unprevalent to watch a gilt at farrowing through no sensible teats at all, or a sow farrowing via say, five viable teats and also the remainder non practical. But selection for great teats and udders is not as easy as it sounds, especially if the variety of females to select from is little. Some teats that show up little and also inverted at selection might develop and be totally sensible at parturition and vice versa. Fortunately, in huge herds the odd mistake can normally be mitigated by cross-cultivating. However, if you are a farmer who selects gilts from your own herd you need to not forobtain that effective rearing of litters starts at gilt selection.

You are watching: How many tits does a pig have

Teat conformation

A basic understanding of the anatomy of the teat is beneficial if great useful ones are to be schosen and their conformation can be classified from 1 to 5 (Fig.8-18). The perfect teat is elongated and pointed through two teat canals opening to the exterior. A class 2 teat will certainly not be so elongated yet the teat finish protrudes well dvery own. Class 3 is the cut-off allude for selection and also this is where the teat sphincter (regularly appearing as a babsence dot) have the right to still be watched when perceived at eye level. A class 4 teat is one wright here the teat sphincter is not visible, in various other words the teat canal is shortened bring about an inverted teat. Such a teat should be thought about non viable. A propercent of inverted teats will certainly be drawn out by the piglet at suckling, but at least 50% of them will reprimary blind. Why take the risk? A course 5 teat is usually one where the teat has been rubbed off in the first 48 hrs of birth. (Teat necrosis).

*

Teat numbers

The optimum or minimum number of sensible teats on the reproduction gilt is a debatable point.

The right would certainly be 16 teats, yet this might represent only 5% of the gilt population, via roughly only 25% having actually 14 - so the commercial choice is 12 excellent teats through 14 or 16 in the Meishan cross breed. If however, you are picking gilts from your own herd, pick 14 or even more if possible.

Teat placement

The place of the teats on the udder is equally as vital as teat condevelopment. It is no usage having 14 perfect teats if their placement results in bad ease of access at birth. Teats need to be equally spaced with no supernumerary ones and also be in 2 parallel lines. When teats diverge they are poorly presented to the piglet at birth. Animals through huge girths also exaggeprice the teat placement. (Fig.8-19).

*

Bad teat conformation is one of the significant factors why a breeding female will not rear 11 or 12 pigs. There might be a history in a herd of excellent litters born yet by the time the pigs are five days of age, 2 or 3 start to show indicators of absence of milk they loose problem and need to be fostered. Two pigs can endure on one teat in the initially 12-24 hrs after farrowing however eventually the more powerful pig takes over and also the various other is left with the teat that has actually now come to be available however it has started to dry off.

The placement of great teats on the boar that is used to develop breeding females need to likewise be provided due focus at selection.

Reputable reproduction suppliers selling replacement breeding stock are fully aware of the prestige of teat conformation, teat numbers and teat placement and also make their examination a critical component of the selection process. However before, demand for gilts may be variable and selection rates (e.g. 50%, 60%, or 70%) have a bearing on profitcapacity. As a commercial producer buying gilts you must constantly examine their underlines on arrival.

Teat necrosis

It has been recognised for a number of years that within 18 hours of birth some of the teat sphincters on those teats in front of the umbilical cord are traumatised by the floor surfaces. This causes the sphincter to end up being necrotic (die). It is the majority of most likely to take place in pigallows born through swollen, oedematous teats and also glands which outcomes from the sow"s female hormones crossing the placenta. Such damages occurs on most floor surfaces yet is obviously worse on unstable floors and also is almost complete within 24 hrs of birth. If gilts are to be schosen, their teats need to be protected from this trauma as shortly as possible after birth. In some circumstances this can be aided by preserving a deep bed of straw or shavings beneath the sow but in many kind of situations this is not practical. The alternate is to protect the teats by paint them through cow gum, (which is a rubber solution, frequently used for attaching photographs to paper), call adhesive or spanning them via adhesive zinc oxide elastoplast for approximately 36 hrs.

Selection technique

Gilts for reproduction have the right to be selected initially at 5 days of age (and ear notched) for conformation and also 12 to 14 great pointed well inserted teats. This will provide an indication of the variety of animals that are perhaps obtainable for selection at a identified future date and also through a simple computer programme details of availcapacity at that date deserve to be predetermined. Up to 90% (but allow for no even more than 75%) of these pets must be finally schosen at 90kg weight.

Potential breeding animals should be examined initially in a confined space such as a weigh cprice to examine the teats. If a 5 day selection has actually been carried out you will certainly understand that the majority of gilts will certainly have actually 12 to 14 teats. The right is to set a weigh cprice on a ramp so that the gilts udder is 0.9-1.2m from the ground. The observer can then bring out a in-depth examicountry and also at the very same time assess the lateral displacement of teats. The last selection must be based upon a normal vulva, overall condevelopment and also ease of activity to alleviate the risk of leg weakness.

Recognising impfinishing disorders and possible lactation failure

These need to be determined at the oncollection and also the following steps will certainly help:

The udder of every sow at farrowing and 12 to 24 hrs thereafter should be palpated. The palm of the hand is placed over each gland with the teat in the centre and also press applied to a normal gland also to the allude at which the sow just responds. This standard is then provided to detect any kind of abnormal pain and also transforms in texture to the other glands.The presence of oedema or fluid in the vulva or in the surconfront tissues in between the legs have to be noted.A finger need to be pressed hard right into a gland to check out whether a little impression is left behind. If so this is even more proof of the extremely at an early stage stperiods of oedema. The initially detectable transforms are usually viewed 4 to 6 hrs after farrowing but sometimes significant mastitis or infection of the gland would certainly be evident before farrowing in which situation inappetence and also faiattract to suckle are oboffered.The competent stockguy or the veterinarian will recognise lactation faiattract by behavioural alters in the sow, lack of alertness and faiattract to lie over and suckle. Affected glands may be discoloured and swollen.The sow may be off her food via a fever and laid on her belly.

See more: High Point Nc To Durham Nc, Distance From High Point, Nc To Durham, Nc

The first indication of lactation failure is presented in the pigallows by raised hair, hollow flanks and also they actively look for food.