Ph.D., History, Boston UniversityJ.D., University of Washington School of LawB.A., History, Western Washington University
Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Eastern background and society. She has actually taught at the high college and also university levels in the UNITED STATE and also South Korea.

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In the 1fifth and 1sixth centuries, three great powers occurred in a band throughout western and also southern Asia. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires establimelted regulate over Turessential, Iran, and also India respectively, in big component because of a Chinese invention: gunpowder.

In large component, the successes of the western empiresdepended on progressed guns and cannons. As an outcome, they are dubbed the "Gunpowder Empires." This phrase was coined by U.S. historians Marshall G.S. Hodgson (1922–1968) and Willian H. McNeill (1917–2016). The gunpowder empires monopolized the manufacture of weapons and also artillery in their locations. However before, the Hodgson-McNeill concept isn"t this day concerned as enough for the rise of these realms, but their usage of the tools was integral to their military tactics.

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The Ottoguy Empire in Turkey

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The Safavid dynasty likewise took regulate of Persia in the power vacuum that adhered to the decrease of Timur"s empire. Unlike Turessential, where the Ottomans sensibly quickly re-establiburned control, Persia languished in chaos for around a century prior to Shah Ismail I (1487–1524) and his "Red Head" (Qizilbash) Turks were able to defeat rival factions and reunite the nation by around 1511.

The Safavids learned the value of guns and also artillery beforehand, from the bordering Ottomans. After the Battle of Chaldiran, Shah Ismail built a corps of musketeers, the tofangchi. By 1598, they had actually an artillery corps of cannons also. They successfully fought the Uzbeks in 1528 utilizing Janissary-favor strategies versus the Uzbek mounties.

Safavid history is rife through clashes and battles between the Shi"a Muslim Safavid Persians and also the Sunni Ottomale Turks. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-equipped Ottomans, however they quickly closed the arms gap. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736.


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The 3rd gunpowder empire, India"s Mughal Realm, supplies possibly the the majority of dramatic example of modern-day weaponry transporting the day. Babur (1483–1530), who founded the empire, was able to defeat Ibrahim Lodi (1459–1526) of the last Delhi Sultanate at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur had the field of expertise of his commander Ustad Ali Quli, who coached the armed forces with Ottomale techniques.

Babur"s victorious Central Asian army provided a combination of conventional equine mounties techniques and new-fangled cannons; the cannon fire spooked Lodi"s war-elephants, which turned and also trampled their own army in their hurry to escape the fearsome noise. After this victory, it was rare for any forces to interact the Mughals in a pitched fight.

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The Mughal Dynasty would certainly endure until 1857as soon as the incoming British Raj deposed and also exiled the last emperor.