Define and also distinguish among prejudice, stereokinds, and discriminationProvide examples of prejudice, stereokinds, and discriminationExordinary why prejudice and also discrimicountry exist

Human being dispute have the right to cause crime, battle, and also mass murder, such as genocide. Prejudice and discrimicountry often are root reasons of huguy dispute, which describes exactly how strangers concerned hate one one more to the extreme of causing others injury. Prejudice and discrimination impact everyone. In this section we will certainly study the definitions of prejudice and also discrimicountry, examples of these ideas, and reasons of these biases.

You are watching: Negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype are known as


Prejudice and also discrimination occur throughout the globe. (a) A 1939 sign in German-lived in Poland cautions “No Entrance for Poles!” (b) A Babsence guy drinks from a designated “colored” water fountain in Oklahoma in 1939 during the era of racial segregation as a exercise of discrimicountry. (c) A member of the Westboro Baptist Church, widely figured out as a hate team, engages in discrimination based on religious beliefs and also sexual orientation. (credit b: modification of work by United States Farm Security Administration; credit c: change of work by “JCWilmore”/Wikimedia Commons)


As we disputed in the opening story of Trayvon Martin, people are exceptionally diverse and also although we share many similarities, we additionally have many type of differences. The social teams we belengthy to assist form our identities (Tajfel, 1974). These differences may be hard for some world to reconcile, which may bring about prejudice toward world who are different. Prejudice is an adverse perspective and feeling toward an individual based solely on one’s membership in a particular social group (Allport, 1954; Brown, 2010). Prejudice is widespread against world who are members of an unfamiliar cultural group. Therefore, particular forms of education and learning, call, interactions, and structure relationships with members of different cultural groups have the right to mitigate the tendency toward prejudice. In fact, sindicate imagining communicating via members of different cultural groups could affect prejudice. Without a doubt, as soon as speculative participants were asked to imagine themselves interacting positively with someone from a various team, this brought about an increased positive mindset towards the other group and also a boost in positive traits associated via the other group. Furthermore, imagined social interaction have the right to reduce anxiety associated with inter-group interactions (Crisp & Turner, 2009). What are some examples of social teams that you belong to that contribute to your identity? Social teams have the right to include gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, social class, religious beliefs, sex-related orientation, profession, and also many type of more. And, as is true for social functions, you deserve to all at once be a member of more than one social group. An example of prejudice is having actually a negative mindset toward world who are not born in the United States. Although civilization holding this prejudiced attitude perform not understand all human being who were not born in the USA, they dischoose them due to their status as foreigners.

The following video on undocumented Americans was produced by the Amerihave the right to Psychological Association.

Can you think of a prejudiced attitude you have actually held towards a team of people? Many times prejudice and also bias are not noticeable and also deserve to be uncovered in the create of microaggressions. This short article consists of an interpretation, video, and research studies on microaggressions. Students of shade face numerous microaggressions. These slights of words, actions, and more are not easily always easily figured out.

How did your prejudice develop? Prejudice regularly starts in the create of a stereotype—that is, a details idea or presumption about people based specifically on their membership in a group, regardless of their individual characteristics. Stereoforms become overgeneralised as soon as used to all members of a team. For example, someone holding prejudiced perspectives toward older adults, might believe that older adults are sluggish and also inskilled (Cuddy, Norton, & Fiske, 2005; Nelboy, 2004). We cannot maybe recognize each individual perkid of progressed age to understand that all older adults are slow and inproficient. Thus, this negative belief is overgeneralized to all members of the team, also though many of the individual team members may in truth be spry and intelligent.

Another instance of a famous stereotype entails beliefs around racial distinctions among athletes. As Hodge, Burden, Robinkid, and also Bennett (2008) allude out, Black male athletes are frequently thought to be more athletic, yet much less intelligent, than their White male countercomponents. These ideas persist despite a number of high profile examples to the contrary. Sadly, such ideas often influence how these athletes are treated by others and also how they watch themselves and also their very own capabilities. Whether or not you agree via a stereotype, stereotypes are primarily well-known within in a given culture (Devine, 1989).

Sometimes people will certainly act on their prejudiced mindsets toward a team of human being, and also this actions is well-known as discrimination. Discrimination is negative action toward an individual as an outcome of one’s membership in a particular team (Allport, 1954; Dovidio & Gaertner, 2004). As a result of holding negative ideas (stereotypes) and also negative attitudes (prejudice) about a particular team, world often treat the target of prejudice poorly, such as excluding older adults from their circle of friends. The table listed below summarizes the qualities of stereokinds, prejudice, and also discrimicountry. Have you ever been the target of discrimination? If so, exactly how did this negative treatment make you feel?

Connecting Stereotypes, Prejudice, and DiscriminationItemFunctionConnectionExample
StereotypeCognitive; thoughts about peopleOvergeneralised beliefs about world may bring about prejudice.“Yankees fans are arrogant and obnoxious.”
PrejudiceAffective; feelings around world, both positive and also negativeFeelings may influence therapy of others, causing discrimination.“I hate Yankees fans; they make me angry.”
DiscriminationBehavior; positive or negative therapy of othersHolding stereoforms and also harboring prejudice may bring about excluding, avoiding, and biased treatment of team members.“I would certainly never hire nor become friends through a perboy if I knew he or she were a Yankees fan.”

So far, we’ve disputed stereotypes, prejudice, and also discrimination as negative thoughts, feelings, and behaviors bereason these are typically the most problematic. However, it is crucial to additionally allude out that civilization deserve to hold positive thoughts, feelings, and habits toward people based upon team membership; for instance, they would show preferential therapy for people who are favor themselves—that is, that share the exact same gender, race, or favorite sporting activities team.

This video demonstrates the ideas of prejudice, stereoforms, and discrimination. In the video, a social experiment is performed in a park where three world try to steal a bike out in the open. The race and sex of the thief is varied: a White male teenager, a Black male teenager, and also a White female. Does anyone attempt to sheight them? The therapy of the teenagers in the video demonstrates the idea of racism.


When we fulfill strangers we instantly procedure three pieces of indevelopment around them: their race, sex, and age (Ito & Urland also, 2003). Why are these aspects of an unfamiliar perchild so important? Why don’t we instead notice whether their eyes are friendly, whether they are smiling, their elevation, the type of apparel they are wearing? Although these second characteristics are necessary in developing an initial impression of a stranger, the social categories of race, gender, and also age are especially salient (i.e. grab our attention) and also seemingly gives a wealth of information about an individual. This information, however, regularly is based upon stereotypes. We might have different expectations of strangers relying on their race, gender, and also age. What stereokinds and prejudices execute you host around world that are from a race, sex, and also age group various from your own?


Racism is prejudice and discrimination versus an individual based exclusively on one’s membership in a certain racial team (such as towards African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinx human being, Native Americans). What are some stereoforms of miscellaneous racial or ethnic groups? Research argues social stereokinds for Asian Americans incorporate cold, sly, and intelligent; for Latinx civilization, cold and also unintelligent; for European Americans, cold and intelligent; and also for Afrideserve to Americans, aggressive, athletic, and also more most likely to be legislation breakers (Devine & Elliot, 1995; Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002; Sommers & Ellsworth, 2000; Dixon & Linz, 2000).

Racism exists for many kind of racial and ethnic groups. For instance, Babsence world are significantly even more most likely to have actually their vehicles searched throughout website traffic stops than White human being, specifically once Babsence human being are driving in predominately White areas, (a phenomenon regularly termed “DWB,” or “driving while Black.”) (Rojek, Rosenfeld, & Decker, 2012)

Mexihave the right to Americans and various other Latinx groups likewise are targets of racism from the police and also various other members of the area. For instance, as soon as purchasing items via a personal inspect, Latinx shoppers are more likely than White shoppers to be asked to show formal identification (Dovidio et al., 2010).

In one case of alleged harassment by the police, a number of East Haven, Connecticut, police police officers were arrested on federal charges because of reportedly ongoing harassment and also brutalization of Latinx people. When the accusations came out, the mayor of East Haven was asked, “What are you doing for the Latinx community today?” The Mayor responded, “I could have actually tacos as soon as I go residence, I’m not fairly certain yet” (“East Haven Mayor,” 2012). This statement undermines the crucial worry of racial profiling and also police harassment of Latinx civilization, while belittling Latinx culture by emphasizing an interest in a food product stereogenerally associated with Latinx human being.

Racism is widespread toward many type of various other teams in the USA consisting of Native Americans, Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Oriental Americans. Have you witnessed racism toward any kind of of these racial or ethnic groups? Are you aware of racism in your community?

All students must be encouraged to report instances of racism. This webwebsite mirrors exactly how students deserve to report discrimicountry. students can also gain training on discrimination for free:

One factor modern-day forms of racism, and also prejudice in general, are hard to detect is regarded the dual mindsets design (Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). Humans have two forms of attitudes: explicit attitudes, which are conscious and controllable, and implicit attitudes, which are unaware and also uncontrolled (Devine, 1989; Olboy & Fazio, 2003). Due to the fact that holding egalitarian views is socially preferable (Plant & Devine, 1998), many people perform not show too much racial bias or various other prejudices on steps of their explicit perspectives. However before, procedures of implicit mindsets frequently present evidence of mild to solid racial bias or various other prejudices (Greenwald, McGee, & Schwartz, 1998; Olboy & Fazio, 2003).


Sexism is prejudice and discrimination towards people based upon their sex. Usually, sexism takes the form of guys holding biases against womales, yet either sex deserve to show sexism toward their very own or their oppowebsite sex. Like racism, sexism might be subtle and difficult to detect. Typical develops of sexism in contemporary society include gender function expectations, such as expecting womales to be the caretakers of the family. Sexism also contains people’s expectations for exactly how members of a sex group need to behave. For instance, womales are meant to be friendly, passive, and also nurturing, and also when women behave actually in an unfriendly, assertive, or neglectful manner they frequently are disfavored for violating their sex role (Rudguy, 1998). Research by Laurie Rudman (1998) finds that when female task applicants self-promote, they are likely to be regarded as competent, however they may be dispreferred and are less most likely to be hired because they violated gender expectations for modesty. Sexism have the right to exist on a societal level such as in hiring, employment opportunities, and also education and learning. Womales are less most likely to be hired or advocated in male-conquered professions such as engineering, aviation, and construction (figure below) (Blau, Ferber, & Winkler, 2010; Ceci & Williams, 2011). Have you ever skilled or witnessed sexism? Think about your family members members’ jobs or careers. Why perform you think there are differences in the work womales and males have actually, such as even more women registered nurses but even more male surgeons (Betz, 2008)?


Woguys currently have actually many type of tasks formerly closed to them, though they still challenge obstacles in male-overcame occupations. (credit: “Alex”/Flickr)


People regularly create judgments and host expectations about people based upon their age. These judgments and also expectations have the right to lead to ageism, or prejudice and discrimination towards people based exclusively on their age. Typically, ageism occurs versus older adults, yet ageism also have the right to happen toward younger adults. Think of expectations you hold for older adults. How can someone’s expectations influence the feelings they host towards individuals from older age groups? Ageism is widespcheck out in U.S. culture (Nosek, 2005), and a widespread ageist attitude toward older adults is that they are incompetent, physically weak, and also sluggish (Greenberg, Schimel, & Martens, 2002) and also some world consider older adults much less attractive. Some societies, however, including some Eastern, Latinx, and also Afrihave the right to Amerideserve to societies, both external and within the United States afford older adults respect and also honor.

Ageism can likewise happen toward younger adults. What expectations do you host toward younger people? Does society mean younger adults to be immature and also irresponsible? How could these 2 forms of ageism affect a younger and also older adult that are applying for a sales clerk position?


Anvarious other form of prejudice is homophobia: prejudice and discrimination of people based specifically on their sexual orientation. Like ageism, homophobia is a widespcheck out prejudice in U.S. society that is tolerated by many type of human being (Herek & McLeeven more, 2013; Nosek, 2005). Negative feelings often cause discrimicountry, such as the exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisex-related, transsex, queer, intersex, and also asex-related (LGBTQIA*) civilization from social teams and the avoidance of LGBTQIA* neighbors and also co-workers. This discrimination also extends to employers deliberately decreasing to hire qualified LGBTQIA* task applicants. Have you competent or experienced homophobia? If so, what stereotypes, prejudiced attitudes, and discrimination were evident? If you are a LGBTQIA+ student that is facing some form of discrimination, resources are easily accessible at:

Some world are quite passionate in their hatred for nonheterosexuals in our society. In some cases, civilization have actually been tortured and/or murdered simply bereason they were not heterosex-related. This passionate response has actually led some researchers to question what motives could exist for homophobic world. Adams, Wbest, & Lohr (1996) conducted a research investigating this concern and their outcomes were rather an eye-opener.

In this experiment, male college students were given a scale that assessed how homophobic they were; those via too much scores were recruited to participate in the experiment. In the end, 64 guys agreed to participate and were separation into 2 groups: homophobic guys and nonhomophobic men. Both teams of men were fitted through a penile plethysmograph, an instrument that procedures changes in blood flow to the penis and serves as an objective measurement of sex-related arousal.

All men were displayed segments of sexually explicit videos. One of these videos involved a sexual interactivity in between a guy and also a woguy (heterosexual clip). One video shown 2 females involved in a sexual interactivity (lesbian clip), and also the last video presented two guys engaged in a sex-related interaction (gay clip). Changes in penile tumescence were taped in the time of all three clips, and a subjective measurement of sexual arousal was likewise derived. While both groups of guys came to be sexually aroprovided to the heterosexual and also lesbian video clips, only those males who were established as homophobic showed sex-related arousal to the gay video clip. While all males reported that their erections suggested arousal for the heterosexual and also lesbian clips, the homophobic men shown that they were not sexually aroused (despite their erections) to the gay clips. Adams et al. (1996) imply that these findings might indicate that homophobia is pertained to homosexual arousal that the homophobic people either deny or are unmindful.


Prejudice and discrimination persist in culture because of social discovering and conformity to social standards. Children learn prejudiced perspectives and also beliefs from society: their parental fees, teachers, friends, the media, and various other resources of socialization, such as Facebook (O’Keeffe & Clarke-Pearboy, 2011). If certain forms of prejudice and also discrimination are acceptable in a society, tright here might be normative pressures to condevelop and share those prejudiced ideas, perspectives, and behaviors. For example, public and exclusive schools are still somewhat segregated by social class. Historically, just children from wealthy households might afford to attend exclusive schools, whereas youngsters from middle- and low-income family members frequently attfinished public colleges. If a boy from a low-earnings household obtained a merit scholarship to attend a exclusive school, how might the son be treated by classmates?

Redlining is an additional instance of this. In the 1930’s, world of color were puburned out of brand-new subcity dwellings into metropolitan real estate jobs also known as redlined locations. Redlined areas were purposely offered less support from the federal government, producing lower top quality public education and reduced pay for teachers (Jan 2018).

Can you recall a time once you organized prejudiced perspectives or beliefs or acted in a discriminatory manner bereason your team of friends expected you to?


When we host a stereotype around a perchild, we have expectations that he or she will certainly accomplish that stereotype. A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation held by a person that transforms his or her behavior in a method that has a tendency to illicit the expected habits in an additional individual. When we host stereokinds about a perkid, we tend to treat the person according to our expectations. This treatment have the right to influence the person to act according to our stereotypic expectations, thus confirming our stereotypic ideas. Research by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that disadvantaged students whose teachers intended them to percreate well had better qualities than disadvantaged students whose teachers intended them to execute poorly.

Consider this example of reason and result in a self-fulfilling prophecy: If an employer expects an openly gay male project applicant to be inexperienced, the potential employer could treat the applicant negatively during the interwatch by engaging in less conversation, making little bit eye contact, and generally behaving actually coldly toward the applicant (Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2002). In revolve, the job applicant will certainly perceive that the potential employer dislikes him, and he will certainly respond by offering shorter responses to intersee questions, making less eye contact, and also mainly disengaging from the intersee. After the interview, the employer will certainly reflect on the applicant’s habits, which appeared cold and distant, and also the employer will conclude, based upon the applicant’s bad performance throughout the intercheck out, that the applicant was in reality inknowledgeable. Therefore, the employer’s stereotype—gay guys are inexperienced and execute not make great employees—is reinrequired. Do you think this project applicant is likely to be hired? Treating people according to stereotypic beliefs deserve to bring about prejudice and also discrimicountry.

Another dynamic that can reinforce stereotypes is confirmation predisposition. When connecting via the tarobtain of our prejudice, we tfinish to pay attention to information that is continuous with our stereotypic expectations and disregard information that is inconsistent with our expectations. In this procedure, recognized as confirmation bias, we seek out information that supports our stereoforms and also neglect indevelopment that is inregular through our stereokinds (Waboy & Johnson-Laird, 1972). In the project interview instance, the employer might not have noticed that the project applicant was friendly and also engaging, and also that he offered knowledgeable responses to the interwatch questions in the beginning of the interwatch. Instead, the employer focused on the task applicant’s performance in the later on component of the interwatch, after the applicant readjusted his demeanor and also actions to complement the interviewer’s negative treatment.

Have you ever fallen prey to the self-fulfilling prophecy or confirmation prejudice, either as the resource or target of such bias? How could we stop the cycle of the self-fulfilling prophecy? Social course stereoforms of individuals tfinish to aincrease once information about the individual is ambiguous. If indevelopment is unambiguous, stereotypes do not tend to aclimb (Baron et al., 1995).


As questioned formerly in this section, we all belengthy to a sex, race, age, and also socioeconomic group. These teams provide an effective source of our identity and self-esteem (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). These teams serve as our in-groups. An in-group is a group that we identify with or check out ourselves as belonging to. A group that we don’t belengthy to, or an out-group, is a team that we see as basically various from us. For instance, if you are a womale, your sex in-group contains all women, and your gender out-team includes all guys (number below). People frequently see gender groups as being essentially different from each other in personality traits, features, social functions, and interests. Since we regularly feel a solid feeling of belonging and emotional connection to our in-groups, we develop in-team bias: a preference for our very own team over various other groups. This in-team bias have the right to cause prejudice and discrimination because the out-team is perceived as different and also is less preferred than our in-team.


These kids are exceptionally young, but they are currently aware of their sex in-group and out-group. (credit: modification of work-related by Simone Ramella)

Regardless of the team dynamics that seem just to push groups towards dispute, tright here are pressures that promote reconciliation between groups: the expression of empathy, of acknowledgment of past suffering on both sides, and the halt of disastrous habits.

One feature of prejudice is to help us feel great about ourselves and preserve a positive self-principle. This should feel excellent about ourselves exhas a tendency to our in-groups: We want to feel good and defend our in-groups. We seek to resolve risks individually and at the team level. This often happens by blaming an out-group for the trouble. Scapegoating is the act of blaming an out-group once the in-group experiences frustration or is blocked from obtaining a goal (Allport, 1954).


As varied individuals, humans deserve to experience dispute once communicating with world who are different from each other. Prejudice, or negative feelings and evaluations, is prevalent once civilization are from a various social team (i.e., out-group). Negative mindsets towards out-groups deserve to lead to discrimicountry. Prejudice and discrimination versus others have the right to be based on sex, race, ethnicity, social course, sex-related orientation, or a range of various other social identities. In-group’s who feel endangered might blame the out-groups for their plight, thus utilizing the out-group as a scapegoat for their frustration.


Openstaxes Psychology text by Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett and also Marion Perlmutter licensed under CC BY v4.0.


Review Questions: 

1. Prejudice is to ________ as discrimination is to ________.

a. feelings; behavior

b. thoughts; feelings

c. feelings; thoughts

d. behavior; feelings

2. Which of the following is not a form of prejudice?

a. homophobia

b. racism

c. sexism

d. individualism

3. ________ occurs once the out-team is blamed for the in-group’s frustration.

a. stereotyping

b. in-group bias

c. scapegoating

d. ageism

4. When we look for out indevelopment that supports our stereokinds we are involved in ________.

a. scapegoating

b. confirmation bias

c. self-fulfilling prophecy

d. in-group bias

Critical Thinking Questions:

1. Some people seem more willing to openly screen prejudice about sexual orientation than prejudice about race and also gender. Speculate on why this could be.

2. When civilization blame a scapegoat, how execute you think they choose proof to assistance the blame?

Personal Application Questions:

1. Give an instance once you felt that someone was prejudiced versus you. What execute you think resulted in this attitude? Did this person screen any type of discrimicountry actions and also, if so, how?

2. Give an example once you felt prejudiced versus someone else. How did you discriminate against them? Why perform you think you did this?



confirmation bias




in-team bias





self-fulfilling prophecy



Answers to Exercises

Recheck out Questions: 

1. A

2. D

3. C

4. B

Critical Thinking Questions:

1. In the United States, many kind of world think that sexual orientation is a choice, and tbelow is some conflict in the research study literature regarding the degree sex-related orientation is organic or affected by social determinants. Due to the fact that race and also gender are not favored, many Americans think it is unfair to negatively judge women or racial minority groups for a characteristic that is figured out by genes. In addition, many type of people in the USA exercise religions that think homosexuality is wrong.

See more: U.S. Gdp And U.S. Gnp Are Related As Follows:, Value Of Imported Goods

2. One means in which they can execute this is to selectively address indevelopment that would bolster their dispute. Furthermore, they might actively seek out indevelopment to confirm their assertions.


ageism: prejudice and also discrimination toward people based solely on their age

confirmation bias: seeking out indevelopment that supports our stereotypes while ignoring indevelopment that is inconstant via our stereotypes

discrimination: negative actions towards people as an outcome of their membership in a certain group

homophobia: prejudice and discrimicountry versus people based exclusively on their sex-related orientation

in-group: team that we recognize via or view ourselves as belonging to

in-team bias: choice for our own group over various other groups

out-group: team that we don’t belengthy to—one that we see as essentially various from us

prejudice: negative mindsets and feelings toward people based solely on their membership in a details group

racism: prejudice and discrimicountry toward people based solely on their race

scapegoating: act of blaming an out-group as soon as the in-team experiences frustration or is blocked from obtaining a goal

self-fulfilling prophecy: treating stereotyped group members according to our biased expectations only to have this therapy affect the individual to act according to our stereotypic expectations, thus confirming our stereotypic beliefs

sexism: prejudice and also discrimination toward individuals based on their sex

stereotype: specific beliefs or assumptions about people based solely on their membership in a team, regardmuch less of their individual characteristics