Race Discrimination Unit, HREOC, October 2002

Contents

1.1 Websites1.2 Computer Games1.3 Racist Music: Publication, Merchandising and Recruitment1.4 Open Publishing Sites1.5 Interenergetic Mediums: Emails, Chat-rooms and Discussion-groups

Introduction

This paper examines the difficulty of racism on the Net or "cyber-racism". It illustprices the types of Net product that are of problem to racial ehigh quality and also humale civil liberties groups in this nation and the worldwide area. The web addresses or names of the racist sites sampled are not consisted of so as to protect against inadvertently publicising these teams. The term "racial hatred" is provided in this paper to describe communication that is unlawful under the Racial Discrimicountry Act 1975. <1> The term "racial vilification" is provided to signify racially offensive interaction and also actions that are prohibited under state or federal law in Australia. By comparison, terms such as "racism" and "racist material" perform not show any assessment of the lawfulness or otherwise of the conduct. The terms "racism" or "racist" are offered to represent an mindset of racial superiority that might be taken into consideration offensive by many human being, but which may neverthemuch less be lawful in Australia. <2>

The Internet is progressively used by racist teams to disseminate racist ideological background, and also to interact to, organise and mobilize members and raise finances through the sale of racist merchandise. According to a number of theorists, the nature of the Net provides it a specifically useful tool for racist groups because:

Racist teams do not typically have access to the consistent mass media;Racist teams are often globally organised and also the Internet is an international interaction system;Net innovation is quickly offered and also accessible at low cost; and

Tbelow are various develops of racist activity on the Net. These include websites, computer games, emails, chat-rooms, conversation teams and also music merchandising. Recent analysis suggests that these different develops of activity play different duties in the propagation of racism. Websites are mostly static mediums that advertise racist ideological background and refer individuals to various other racist resources such as discussion teams. <4> More interactive mediums, such as email, chat-rooms and also discussion groups, create the "feeling of community" and interrelation <5> that is necessary to ideological persuasion, membership recruitment, and also incitement to racist violence. Music and computer game merchandising likewise plays a critical duty in propagating and reinforcing racist ideological background and recruiting brand-new members into racist groups, especially for young people. <6> Websites are therefore crucial devices for the dissemination of racist principles. Yet emails, chat-rooms, discussion teams and game and also music merchandising, every one of which have traditionally received much less attention than websites, should likewise be of problem to those wishing to resolve racism on the Internet.

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Examples from each of these various creates of racist activity are collection out listed below and are taken, wright here possible, from Australian produced content.

1.1 Websites

The first webwebsite of a racist team was created on the Net in 1995. <7> While it is clear that there has actually been an increase in the variety of racist sites on the Net, it is challenging to estimate precise numbers. The swiftly changing nature of Web content provides such estimates challenging, as does the altering configuration of racist groups <8> and the variation in the definitions supplied. <9> Price quotes of the variety of racist websites have actually ranged from 600 sites or fewer <10> to more than 2,000 sites. <11>

In many type of respects, the actual variety of sites is much less vital than their affect. The product posted on such sites has actually the capacity to disseminate degrading notions of racial inferiority and reason offence, humiliation and social department. Websites have the right to likewise facilitate recruitment right into racist teams and also assist in financing their activities. For these reasons, the appearance of cyber-racism has actually prompted problem by the United Nations and various other racial etop quality agencies in current years. <12>

Examples of message and imeras from websites developed by people or groups within Australia

The adhering to message and also imperiods are taken from sites created by Australians, so they highlight the domestic relevance of the problem of cyber-racism. <13> In 2002 tbelow were around 25 Australian-produced racist websites on the Internet. <14> The examples listed below show the content of 6 of these.

Example 1:

"…it is a world run by the Zionist Jewish Influence and also Race Tainting Paedophiles that are only here to rape our heritage and destroy the attributes that make us White People great…"

"We are seldom informed that the Aborigines were a Cannibalistic peoples that were conserved from extinction by Captain Cook, as he lugged some selection to their diet…"

"If we perform not stand now and perform our god offered duty to store OUR nation clean of all the Blacks, Jews and Yellow scum from Asia, WE are simply as negative as the enemy, if not worse. We are trading our race for that of an inferior form of trash.

STAND AND FIGHT OR SIT AND DIE

HAIL WODEN!! HEIL HITLER!! WHITE POWER!!"(Original emphasis)

 

Example 2:

"…look at the bizarre create of transvestitism that (non Muslim) Arab Women practice. No amount of "significant hair", tight skirts, pancake makeup and also electrolysis have the right to conceal the truth that they are not attrenergetic Women. They finish up looking favor cheap drag majesties, a parody of Woman. I personally choose a Woguy with less facial hair than myself! The Birka, or full Arab heresolve has much much less to execute via Muslim female modesty than it has to perform with the embarrassment of the Muslim Arab male at his wife"s ugliness…. ."

"Arabs… have actually little bit or no expertise of individual hygiene products such as deodorant or also soap… nopoint has actually ever before turned my stomach prefer the fetid stench of unwashed wogs!"

"Eincredibly second or 3rd challenge is Asian and their slitted almond eyes bore directly through you. Thstormy the genetic window of their black eyes you deserve to check out the brutal and pitimuch less Mongol hordes from one more time and also location lurking simply below the surface. It is indeed a thin veneer of "civilization" that holds this yellow monster within, but make no mistake, prefer the kraken of old it will awake once the moment is ideal."

This exact same site has the adhering to anti-Semitic image:

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Example 3:

In spite of claiming not to advocate violence versus other races, one website contains offensive imperiods and cartoons that deserve to be downloaded, including the following:

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Example 4:

Several of these sites additionally have actually Guestpublications wright here tourists to the website can write-up comments. The adhering to is an instance of one vilificatory posting:

"GET THE F*** OUT OF OUR COUNTRYNIGGERS,SPICS,KIKES,SANDNIGGERS,ANDCHINKS are ALL theS*** that renders our COUNTRY STINK…." (expletives edited)

 

Example 5:

Racial purity is also an additional principal concern of many type of sites. For instance, the complying with image have the right to be found on one site:

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This same site promotes white prominence and is strongly opposed to immigration, as depicted by the adhering to publication:

…EASY STEPS TO A BETTER NATION

1. PAULINE HANSON TO RUN THE COUNTRY.2. REINTRODUCTION OF THE WHITE AUSTRALIA POLICY.3. MASS DEPORTATION OF ALL PARASITES AND SUBHUMANS.4. AUSTRALIAN NAVY TO PERMANENTLY REMOVE ANY INVADING BOAT PEOPLE FROM THE SEA.5. ALL RETARDS, DOWNS AND TIMMEH"S TO BE STERILISED AND DETAINED IN CAMPS.6. RACE TRAITORS TO BE PUBLICLY CASTRATED AS AN EXAMPLE TO WOULD BES.7. IF YOU"RE NOT WHITE YOU"RE NOT WELCOME!

 

Example 6:

One web page, entitled "Politically Incorrect Humour", includes the following:

"Dictionary: Coon (c-oo-n) n. Nigger (nig-er) n. Abo (a-bb-o) n. Boong (b-OO-ng) n.An Australian anthropoid scrub ape of the primate household Austropongidae (superhousehold cercopithecoidea). Escaping from Africa in prebackground, these wild creatures now roam openly, while damaging the financial and social infrastructures of Australia and also miscellaneous various other countries. These flamboyant sub-human beings love to consume big quantities of grbasic fried chicken, inhale petroleum gasoline and also listen to fellow apes "sing" rhymes over deaf beats. One deserve to uncover these lazy sub-human beings infesting areas of the civilization dubbed urban slums."

"How execute you gain a coon out of a tree?Cut the rope."

"How carry out you make a dead coon float?Take your foot off its head and let it climb to the surchallenge."

"What is the correct way to stare at a coon?Dvery own a gun barrel."

"What"s the difference between a Jew and a pizza?Pizzas do not scream as soon as you put them in the oven."

It is important to emphasise that these sites have actually been created by human being in Australia. The concern of whether these sites perform, in truth, breach the Racial Discrimination Act is effectively a matter of formal examination and/or judicial determination.

Tright here are, of course, many kind of even more racist sites on the Internet that are developed by people or teams from countries other than Australia. In many kind of situations the information on the sites developed outside of Australia is also even more excessive than that had on sites developed locally. This is especially the case for sites developed in America, wbelow the First Amendment protects liberty of speech to the level that racial vilification is lawful. In addition, text and imeras from sites produced off-shore (and the racist ideological background that atoften tends them) is regularly "copied" by many type of neighborhood website creators. Sites developed off-shore are then a major trouble for Australia, not just through respect to the extremity of their racist content, but likewise bereason of their straight result in disseminating racist ideological background. Off-shore sites also current distinctive problems with respect to regulation which is a recurring problem for Internet regulators and also market.

Recent evaluation argues that websites act prefer "brochures" for racist ideological background, and also as "portals" offering web links to an selection of merchandise or even more interactive forums such as discussion teams. <15> As a static, non-interactive tool, websites cannot offer the type of interactivity and also interrelation that is crucial to social activity commitment and mobilization. Consequently, it appears that websites are less directly crucial than originally believed in the recruitment of uninitiated people into extremist teams. <16> Nonetheless, the referral duty of websites plays a specifically crucial indirect role in sustaining and also propagating racist ideology and also, inevitably, in incitements to racial violence. Additionally, it does not diminish the offensiveness nor, possibly, the unlawful nature, of the concepts published on them.

1.2 Computer Games

Computer games are another develop of racial vilification that is emerging through the Web. These encompass racist computer system games through titles such as Ethnic Cleansing, Concentration Camp, Nigger Hunt and Shoot the Blacks. These games are marketed and also sold using the Web, and segments of them have the right to be downloaded and sampled by Web customers. Currently, tbelow are about 20 racist computer system games advertised or spread by means of the Web, many of which are marketed by Amerihave the right to racist sites.

One of the more advanced CD-ROM computer system games presently available on-line is the game called Ethnic Cleansing. The game, principally advertised by an on-line white power music distributor, was released in 2002 on Martin Luther King Day. <17> The object of the game is to kill "sub-humans", namely Negros and also Latinos, and their Jewish "masters". It has been observed that games such as these revolve racially urged violence right into "entertainment". <18>

The promotional material for the computer system game Ethnic Cleansing states:

Run with the ghetto blasting ameans various blacks and also spics in an attempt to acquire entrance to the submethod mechanism...where the jews have actually hidden to prevent the carnage. Then if your lucky you have the right to blow away jews as they scream "Oy Vey!", on your means to their command also center.

The player can select to have actually their character dress in KKK robes or as a Skinhead during the game. Various white-power icons can be viewed throughout the game and also it is played to a white power music soundtrack.

The site includes the complying with promotional photo of a black perchild who has been shot:

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The very same team that produced Ethnic Cleansing has actually declared it will release a new game based upon The Turner Diaries by William Pierce. <19> The Turner Diaries is extensively cited by racist groups and it portrays a human being wide race war including the devastation of all non-Whites and also Jews by white Aryans with the usage of nuclear, chemical and also biological weapons.

This develop of racial vilification has actually crucial ramifications not just for humale civil liberties agencies. The problem is also pertinent to Internet content regulators in creating acceptable standards for computer system game content and then classifying Net content appropriately. The advertisement of these games may also constitute the marketing and also sale of unlawful product in Australia.

1.3 Racist Music: Publication, Merchandising and Recruitment

Racist beliefs and principles are also disseminated with music and also specifically the lyrics of neo-Nazis bands which produce music otherwise called Hatecore, Oi!, Volk Music, White Power Rock, and the like. <20> The leading themes of this genre of music are white prominence, vilification of Jews, race battle, violence and (given that the 1990s) "Odinist" spiritual themes. <21> Web marketing of racist music has actually gave a method through which potentially unlawful material is offered and also dispersed in Australia.

Racist music is principally acquired from the far-right skinhead activity and also, through the Internet, this music has actually come to be "possibly the the majority of crucial tool of the global neo-Nazi movement to get revenue and brand-new recruits." <22> The circulation of rock hate music by means of the Net has concerned prestige considering that the establishment in 1999 of a highly successful US on-line music distribution agency. This agency is owned by an American neo-Nazi team. It is thought to have a turn-over of even more than US$1 million per annum and industries more than 250 CD titles. <23>

Instances of racist music incorporate the album Racially Motivated Violence which contains songs entitled "Still Just a Nigger", "Race Mixing is Treason", "Mud Man" and also "Islam (Religion of Whores)". Anvarious other of the band"s albums is titled "Too White For You" and also the lyrics from the song "Racially Debased" on this album encompass the following:

The mud brvery own child that"s been given birthThe beating of your life is what it is worth…

My hands are roughly your neckYour error is mine to correctThe air progressively dwindles awayYour defiled body, on the ground it lays.

These and other racist lyrics are accessible on the Web in written form or through audio samples.

Web marketing of racist music is important as this music is mostly not easily accessible in document stores in Australia. <24> Because of this, the Web provides a circulation avenue not formerly easily accessible to Australian citizens. In addition, some of the lyrics of hatecore music may breach the provisions of the Racial Discrimination Act. Consequently, the Internet has end up being a method by which potentially unlawful material is marketed and also dispersed in Australia.

Profits from the sale of music CDs are one implies through which racist groups are able to finance their operations and publications.

Racist music is additionally thought to be essential in the recruitment of new members right into racist groups. Several extremist teams have articulated the potential of music as a recruitment and ideological propagation tool. David Goldman, who establimelted the renowned hate monitoring webwebsite "HateWatch", <25> has defined this potential in the following way:

Once you start listening, buying CDs, maybe it"s time to take that following action and also go to among the concerts. That"s wbelow the next action, actual recruitment, takes area. <26>

Accordingly, hatecore music on the Web raises necessary worries regarding the dissemination of racially offensive material, the circulation of potentially unlawful material in Australia, the financing of racist groups and the recruitment of brand-new members right into these teams.

Internet radio stations that specialise in racist concerns are also an emerging difficulty, as are audio downloads from the Net that contain racist ideological background. <27>

1.4 Open Publishing Sites

Open publishing sites have additionally been reported to contain racist product that might be unlawful. Open publishing is a principle strongly grounded in the ideology of totally free speech, in that via the open up publishing media website, the public is able to add news stories and watch these instantly show up on the internet. These stories "are filtered as little as possible to help the readers discover the stories they want…" <28>

Some open publishing sites are alleged to have actually published racially vilificatory material which was added by members of the public, consisting of comments such as "the Jewish society is about thieextremely and also back-stabbing evilness". <29>

1.5 Interenergetic Mediums: Emails, Chat-rooms and Discussion-groups

The fostering of racist belief by an individual entails attitudinal, and also even behavioural readjust, and such adjustments are a lot of efficiently fostered by a "sense of community" and also interaction. As has actually been provided "whilst a sense of area is very hard to engender on static Net sites, it is natural to the lively extransforms that typify Net discussion teams." <30> This renders the more interenergetic mediums on the Internet an important means of propagating racist ideology and also behaviour. These interactive mediums deserve to, but, be more challenging to monitor and evaluate and may additionally raise issues as to the reach of the Racial Discrimicountry Act 1975.

Email is an especially powerful organisational tool for racist teams bereason it enables direct communication. The "listserves" and "newsgroups" operated by many of these groups considerably improve the distribution of racist ideological background via email. Its capacity to influence people trying out racist ideological background is significant, "specifically as soon as somebody of the stature of a Don Black sends you a personalized e-mail message." <31>

The Racial Discrimination Act will not constantly apply to emails however. An email would certainly most likely be considered personal (and also past the reach of the Act) unmuch less it was forwarded by among the correspondants to others. Emails in between friends, for instance, are personal and also therefore not affected by the Racial Discrimination Act. It is essential to clarify, but, that it is an offence in Australia to harass an additional perboy, consisting of by email, so vilificatory product privately posted to an additional is not constantly legal. In addition, emails spread even more generally than in between people via a personal connection would certainly immediately raise doubts as to the privacy of the communication.

In October 2002 a racist email was reported to have been distributed randomly with a computer virus in the Northern Territory. <32> Tbelow have also been reports of various other kinds of racist mass emails targeting certain racial teams in Australia, and this type of circulation has actually similarities to the trouble of unsolicited mass email or "SPAM".

Chat-rooms are likewise mediums wbelow racist communications take place and these forums deserve to frequently be classified as public and also therefore within the reach of the regulation. Many racist sites also have web links to specialised conversation groups. Yahoo! in the USA presently facilitates approximately 143 e-groups came to through racism and hate, whilst MSN (US) facilitates about 17 such groups. <33> The figures for Australian e-teams are yet to be researched.

The level to which a password or other protective tool takes a chat-room discussion communication right into the exclusive realm (and past the reach of the Act) would should be evaluated on a situation by case basis. In many instances, it does seem that the ease and also openness of accessibility to many on-line chat-rooms and also conversation teams would certainly disqualify them from claiming to be "private".

Tbelow are several reasons why discussion teams are of concern to racial equality groups. <34> One is that discussion groups progressively call for individuals to attain passwords and also, occasionally, the consent of the bigger group in order to get involved. Within such closed venues racist ideological background is "uncontested" by bigger public views, which for some have the right to amplify the persuasiveness of the ideology being expressed. Additionally, the form of interactivity accessible in a discussion team is essential to ideological persuasion. David Goldman poses the question "Think about just how you convince somebody of a proplace, any type of proposition." <35> The answer, he claims, is by relating to the person"s involves and problems, establishing these as mutual, and then proposing the reason for these problems - in this instance, blaming minority and also ethnic teams. This kind of interaction is particularly crucial for alienated human being that might be delicate to recruitment right into extremist teams. It permits such civilization to uncover a sense of identity within the team and also to be convinced that the blame for their circumstances or comes to is grounded in race.

It is vital to include that such membership groups are not necessarily "private" for the functions of the Racial Discrimination Act as obtaining membership may still be a reasonably straightforward issue. Aget, a instance by situation evaluation would be necessary.

In enhancement, the anonymity of discussion groups is essential. For potential members there is a regarded hazard in coming to be straight connected in an extremist group, specifically for the first time. As Todd Schroer has listed, "If you have to go to a Klan rally or actually create to to get connected in hate, that"s a big barrier to conquer." <36> Many civilization, specifically young human being, would certainly feel even more secure attfinishing a "online cross burning" <37> than a actual one, and this anonymity permits "a safe expedition of extremist ideology" for potential recruits. <38>

Finally, conversation teams, and also also the even more interactive mediums mainly such as emails, and so on, reinpressure racism. It is not safe, or widely acceptable, for a person to publicly advertise their racist views or behaviour. Discussion teams develop an environment wbelow "racists have the right to congratulate one an additional and also urge each other on to violence." <39>

Due to the success of interenergetic Web mediums in propagating racist ideological background and recruiting members to racist teams, the Southern Poverty Law Center concludes that racist teams and also individual propagandists will significantly utilise the more exclusive Net venues. Given the fact that some of these interenergetic mediums at least purport to be private, this trfinish potentially has actually vital ramifications in the application of the Racial Discrimicountry Act.

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This paper has gave an introduction of the different kinds of racist task on the Web along with illustrations of these. It demonstrates that the issue of racism on the Internet is major and takes many various forms. The fact that these sites were accessed as component of HREOC"s Australian-based study evidences that the regulatory program in Australia is not yet efficient in avoiding racist material. The focus upon Australian-developed content likewise illustprices that this is not simply a trouble produced by various other nations, also though the dimensions of the problem are substantially broadened by overseas postings on the Net.

Endnotes