In this leskid, we will examine these 4 stperiods.Each stage of the life cycle has actually its very own qualities.

You are watching: Occurs when a company retains a product but reduces its marketing support costs.

This table summarizes the marketing objective, 4Ps, and also competition in each among the four stperiods of the life cycle.

Marketing ObjectiveGain AwarenessStress DifferentiationMaintain Brand also LoyaltyHarvesting, DeletionCompetitionProductPricePlace (distribution)Promotion
OneMore versionsFull product lineBest sellers
Skimming or penetrationGain industry share, dealDefend industry share, profitStay profitable
LimitedMore outletsMaximum outletsFewer outlets
Indevelop, educateStress points of differenceReminder-orientedMinimal promotion

Introduction Stage

This is the stage in which the life cycle starts. The product is a brand also brand-new offering in this stage.

Characteristics of the development stage include:

Profit is minimal, and negative in many kind of instances.Sales grow progressively as the promotional initiatives raise awareness for the brand-new product.The marketing objective in the development stage is to create customer awareness and stimulate trial.The goal is to initiate the initial purchase of the product by consumers.

Companies regularly spend greatly on heralding in the arrival phase. Building awareness and also stimulating product trial needs large spfinishing in marketing activities. Advertising and promotion expenditures are often made to stimulate major demand also. Key demand also describes demand also for the product class quite than demand also for a details brand. Once the life cycle progresses, competitors come in and present their own brands. In those stperiods companies emphasis on producing selective demand, which is the demand also for a details brand.

Pricing in the development phase can be either high or low. A high initial price is well-known as skimming pricing strategy. It helps the agency recover the high expenses of breakthrough and commercialization. Anvarious other advantage of skimming pricing is that it enables the firm to take benefit of the price insensitivity of at an early stage buyers.

There are disbenefits of skimming pricing strategy, among which is that high prices tfinish to attract competitors. Other firms watch high prices as a signal of high profits. In order to discourage competitors, businesses deserve to start their initial providing with a low price. This kind of pricing is well-known as penetration pricing strategy. This pricing strategy usually rises the sale volume, which is ideal to construct up industry share. We will cover these pricing strategies and many kind of more in the coming lessons.

Stop and also Think Question:Why execute you think profit would be negative in the introduction stage?

Click to disclose answer

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Businesses spfinish large sums of money in study and development as well as commercialization of brand-new assets. Due to high initial expenses, profit initially would certainly be negative.


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Growth Stage

This is the second stage in the life cycle. It follows the arrival phase. Characteristics of the expansion stage include:

We normally observe fast rises in sales. Sales rise at a raising price.Competitors begin to show up in the sector.Profit typically peaks in the time of the growth stage.

Businesses focus on stimulating selective demand also in their proclaiming. The goal is to compare their product’s benefits to those of competitors" offerings in order to acquire sector share.Businesses include brand-new attributes to the original design of the product in this phase. The idea is to differentiate the company"s brand from those of its competitors.

The marketing objective in the expansion stage is to tension points of difference. The goal is to construct market share by highlighting the superior characteristics of the product versus competitive products (stress and anxiety differentiation).


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Example:E-book analysis from Kindle or various other taballows have the right to be provided as an instance of a product in the growth stage.

Maturity Stage

The maturity phase adheres to the expansion stage in the life cycle. Characteristics of the maturity stage inlcude:

Sales increase at a decreasing rate at the maturity stage and profit starts to decrease. The reason is because of fierce price competition among many sellers in the industry.Marketing attention in the maturity phase is regularly directed towards holding market share via further product differentiation and also finding brand-new buyers.The marketing objective in the maturity stage is to keep brand also loyalty via reminder orientation. The agency built its market share in the expansion phase, currently it is the time to keep and also hold the market share.

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Example:Soft drinks and also presweetened cereals are some commodities in their maturity stage.

Decline Stage

The decrease stage is the last phase of the life cycle. Characteristics of the decrease stage include:

Sales and profits decline.The product is completing the life cycle.Environpsychological components play a crucial role in entering the decrease stage. It is not bereason of any kind of wrong strategy on the component of the agency.

In many cases, technological creation is the reason behind the decline phase as more recent innovations replace older innovations. For instance, typewriters are reinserted by computer systems. Cloud innovation is replacing USB drives and various other storage devices.


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Example:Examples of assets in the decrease phase would be analogue TVs and desktop computer systems.

Tbelow are 2 methods a firm might follow in the decrease stage.

1. Deletion: The company simply removes the product from the market. It is the a lot of drastic strategy for a declining product. The firm still would certainly need to attend to the existent customers of the product through any kind of assistance or maintenance if required. It could take time to eliminate the product entirely.


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Example:Sanford still continues to offer its Liquid Paper correction liquid. It is largely offered in typewriters and also has actually not much of a require in the era of word-processing equipment.

2. Harvesting: The agency retains the product but reduces marketing support expenses. The product proceeds to be offered in the market, but salesworld execute not allocate time in marketing the product. The agency does not use any kind of promotional projects to the product, and also no money is spent in declaring the product.


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Example:Coca-Cola still sells Tab. It is the first diet cola, and is preserved for a little team of die-hard fans. According to Coke’s CEO, “It mirrors you treatment. We desire to make sure those that want Tab gain Tab.”

Length and also Shape of the Product Life Cycle

Above we have viewed the four stages of the life cycle. Now, we turn our attention to the length and shape of the product life cycle.

Length of the Product Life Cycle

Tright here is no specific time that a product takes to relocate via its life cycle. It is not possible to recognize ahead of time when a product will certainly move from introduction to growth to maturity and also lastly to the decrease phase. Usually consumer commodities have actually shorter life cycles than perform service assets. As a result of 24/7 connectivity, consumers are increated about new modern technologies and also assets faster, which shor10s the life cycles of existent commodities. Technology is the pressure behind innovation and also leads to the breakthrough of new commodities which replace the existing ones.

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Shape of the Product Life Cycle

There are four product kinds that follow specific life cycle shapes.