This commemorated work-related by one of the forea lot of professionals in Indo-European and Classical grammars is currently easily accessible in a totally revised second edition, thoroughly updated and also corrected via over fifty pages of new material. The Outline"s forty-five chapters market a wealth of expertise for both the generalist and the specialist in their treatment of the breakthrough of Latin from its earliest prehistorical origins down to the modern Romance languperiods. Not only spanning the language"s phonological, morphological, and syntactic prehistory in excellent depth, they also encompass crucial subsidiary topics favor language call and also Etrusdeserve to.

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Basic indevelopment is presented in concise outline format in the major message and also is augmented by plenty of additional details that populate the footnotes. The book concludes with a comprehensive bibliography complied with by complete indices of creates, primitive resources, and topics.

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Table of Contents

Preconfront and also Acknowledgments xi

Abbreviations and Symbols xiii

Languperiods, Language Families, Dialects xiii

Morphological Abbreviations xiv

Metrical Abbreviations xv

Symbols xv

The International Phonetic Alphabet xvi

Language Map of Old Italy xvii

1 The Historical Study of Language and the Discovery of Indo-European 1

I How to Discover about Language Change and Language History 1

II The Historical Development of Indo-European Linguistics 9

2 Bibliographical Hints and also Survey of the Indo-European Languperiods 11

I Bibliographical Hints for the Study of Indo-European Linguistics 11

II The Indo-European Languperiods from West to East 12

3 Periodization of Latin; Writing in Italy and also Its Prehistory 24

I Periodization of Latin 24

II The Greek Alphabet and also Its Origins 25

III The Alphabet in Italy 27

4 Phonetics and also Phonology; Consonants and also Vowels of Proto-Indo-European 34

I Basic Phonetics and Phonology 34

II The Consonants of Proto-Indo-European 36

III The Vowel System of Proto-Indo-European 43

5 Word Structure, the Phonology-Morphology Interconfront, and also Ablaut 48

I Bask Concepts of Proto-Indo-European Word Structure 48

II Root Structure Constraints 49

III Ablaut 50

6 Laryngeals 53

I Laryngeals 53

II Speculations on the Phonetic Interpretation of the Laryngeals 55

III Basic Laryngeal Innovations in Some Instructive Indo-European Langueras 56

7 Rebuilding Ancient Pronunciation and the Sounds of the Latin Consonants 61

I The Nature of the Evidence for the Reconstruction of the Old Pronunciation of Latin 61

II The Pronunciation of the Consonants of Latin 64

8 The Segpsychological Inventory of Latin; Syllabification 71

I Vowels 71

II Consonants 73

III Syllabification 75

9 The Stops from Proto-Indo-European to Latin 80

I Summary Chart of Basic Innovations of Proto-Indo-European Stops 80

II Labials 81

III Dentals 82

IV Palatovelars and Velars 84

V Labiovelars 86

VI Aspirated Palatovelars, Velars, and also Labiovelars 87

10 The Continuants from PIE to Proto-Latin; Key Technologies of Consonants in Other Traditions 89

I Overview Chart of Basic Developments of Continuants 89

II The Proto-Indo-European Fricative *s to Proto-Latin 89

III The Sonorant Consonants from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Latin 90

IV Dental plus Dental 92

V Notes on Important Innovations of the Stops in Some Other Branches of Indo-European 93

11 The Syllabic Sonorant Consonants and Vowels from PIE to Proto-Latin 103

I The Syllabic Sonorant Consonants 103

II The Short Vowels 104

III The Long Vowels 106

IV The "Long" Syllabic Sonorant Consonants 108

V The Diphthongs 109

VI The Long Diphthongs 113

VII Syllabic Sonorant Consonants Before a Vowel 114

12 Prosody; Laryngeal Tricks 115

I The Proto-Indo-European and also Greek Prosodic Systems 115

II The Typical Italic Stress System 118

III Advanced Laryngeal Tricks 122

13 Weakening and also Syncope 126

I Introduction and Basic Rules 126

II Analysis of Weakening 130

III Weakening and also Paul"s Principle 131

IV Syncope 132

14 Shortening and Lengthening of Vowels; Vowels in Hiatus 136

I Shortenings 136

II Lengthening of Vowels 140

III Contraction 142

IV Vowel-plus-Vowel Sequences at a Word Boundary (Elision) 144

15 Changes to Vowels and also Diphthongs Not Connected to Weakening; Anaptyxis; Final Vowels 148

I Changes to Quick Vowels Not Connected to Weakening 148

II Changes to Long Vowels and also Diphthongs 154

III Anaptyxis 155

IV Absolute Final Vowels 156

16 The Consonants Rechecked out 160

I More Considerations on the Voiced Aspiprices 160

II Rhotacism 161

III The Fate of h 163

IV Loss of u 165

V Loss of i 166

VI Consonants in Final Position 166

VII Distant Dissimilations 168

VIII Simplification of Geminates 169

IX VC-Metatheses 170

17 Consonant Clusters, Part 1: CC Clusters Ending in a Glide or Liquid 171

I Summary 171

II CC Clusters Ending in a Glide 171

III CC Clusters Ending in a Liquid 176

18 Consonant Clusters, Part 2: CC Clusters Ending in a Nasal, Fricative, or Sheight 181

I CC Clusters Ending in a Nasal 181

II CC Clusters Ending in a Fricative 185

III CC Clusters Ending in a Sheight 188

19 Consonant Clusters, Part 3: CCC and CCCC Clusters 192

I CCC Clusters 192

II CCCC Clusters 198

20 Typology of Consonantal Sound Changes; Phonotactics; Absolute and Relative Chronology 200

I Typology of Consonantal Sound Changes 200

II The Synchronic Phonotactics of Classical Latin 205

III Relative and also Absolute Chronology of Latin Sound Changes 207

21 Case Endings of the Singular 210

I Proto-Indo-European Nominal Inflectional Categories 210

II The Case Endings of Proto-Indo-European 215

22 Case Endings of the Plural and Dual 222

I The Cases of the Plural 222

II The Forms of the Dual 226

III The Neuter Nominative-Accusative Plural 227

IV Summary of the Forms of the Instrumental Singular and also Plural and the Dative Plural 229

23 The Latin Nominal System; the Second Declension 230

I The Latin Nominal System 230

II The Thematic Paradigm 232

III Case Endings 237

IV Gender of o-stems 243

24 The First Declension 245

I Prehistory 245

II Case Endings 246

25 The Third Declension 255

I Introduction and Consonant Stems 255

II The i-stems 259

III Some Irregularities 265

26 The Fourth and also Fifth Declensions 268

I The 4th Declension (also dubbed u-stems) 268

II The Fifth Declension 272

III Ircontinual Nouns: Suppletive Stem Formation 274

27 Accentual Paradigms, Internal Derivation, and Compounds 276

I The Proto-Indo-European Accentual Paradigms 276

II Reflexes of Proto-Indo-European Athematic Paradigms in Latin 281

III Internal Derivation 282

IV Compounds 282

28 Nominal Derivation, Part 1: Introduction; Thematic and also *eh2-sufnxes 286

I Review 286

II Thematic Stem Types 290

III *eh2-stem Suffixes 320

29 Nominal Derivation, Part 2: Athematic Suffixes 323

I Obstruent Stems 323

II Liquid and Nasal Stems 328

III i-stem Suffixes 334

IV u-stem Suffixes 342

V Suffixes in -e- 343

VI Numbers of Abstracts from the Beginning to 636 CE (Isidore of Seville) 344

30 Personal Pronouns 345

I First Singular 345

II 2nd Singular 348

III First Plural 349

IV 2nd Plural 351

V First Dual 352

VI Second Dual 352

VII The Reflexive Pronoun 353

VIII The Possessive Pronouns in Latin 354

31 Gendered Pronouns, Part 1 355

I The *so-/*to- Deictic Pronoun 355

II The Anaphoric Pronoun *(h1)i- ˜ *(h1)ei- ˜ *(h1)e 360

32 Gendered Pronouns, Part 2 365

I Latin Technologies among the Gendered Pronouns 365

II Pronominal Adjectives 369

III The Relative Pronoun 369

IV The Interrogative-Indefinite Pronoun 370

V Pronominal Adverbs 375

33 Comparison; Adverbs 378

I The Comparison of Adjectives 378

II The Formation of Adverbs 385

34 Numerals 387

I The Cardinals 387

II The Ordinals 397

III The Latin Numeral Forms in -ni 399

35 Semantics of Verbal Categories; the Proto-Indo-European Verbal System; the Personal Endings 400