A genetic readjust that brought about a specific Hox gene to be expressed alengthy the reminder of a vertebprice limb bud rather of farther earlier assisted to make possible the development of the tetrapod limb. This form of readjust is illustrative of A) the influence of setting on advancement. B) paedomorphosis. C) a adjust in a developmental gene or in its regulation that changed the spatial organization of body components.

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Which of the following terms or structures is effectively linked just with animals? A) Hox genes B) cell wall C) autotrophy D) sexual remanufacturing E) chitin
Both pets and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that just animals derive their nutrition A) from organic issue. B) by preying on pets. C) by ingesting it. D) by consuming living, rather than dead, prey. E) by making use of enzymes to digest their food.
Which of the adhering to is (are) distinct to animals? A) cells that have actually mitochondria B) the structural carbohydrate, chitin C) nervous conduction and also muscular activity D) heterotrophy E) both A and C
The last common ancestor of all pets was more than likely a A) unicellular chytrid. B) unicellular yeast. C) plant. D) multicellular fungus. E) flagellated protist
Almost every one of the significant pet body plans checked out this day appeared in the fossil document over 50 million years back at the start of the A) Cambrian period. B) Ediacaran duration. C) Permian period. D) Carboniferous period.
Which of these genetic processes may be the majority of valuable in accountancy for the Cambrian explosion? A) binary fission B) mitosis C) random segregation D) gene duplication E) chromosomal condensation
Whatever before its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example of A) mass extinction. B) evolutionary stasis. C) adaptive radiation. D) A and also B only E) A, B, and also C
An adult pet that possesses bilateral symmeattempt is most absolutely also A) triploblastic. B) a deuterostome. C) eucoelomate. D) the product of metamorphosis. E) extremely cephalized.
At which developpsychological stage need to one have the ability to initially differentiate a protostome embryo from a deuterostome embryo? A) fertilization B) cleavage C) gastrulation D) coelom development E) metamorphosis
Organisms mirroring radial symmetry would certainly most likely A) be excellent swimmers. B) have quick escape behavior. C) move from place to area reasonably slowly, if at all. D) have the ability to fly. E) have many type of fins
Cephalization is mostly connected via A) adaptation to dark settings. B) method of reproduction. C) fate of the blastopore. D) type of digestive mechanism. E) bilateral symmeattempt.
You are trying to recognize an organism. It is an pet, yet it does not have nerve or muscle tworry. It is neither diploblastic nor triploblastic. It is more than likely a A) flatworm. B) jelly. C) comb jelly. D) sponge. E) nematode.
Organisms that are neither coelomate nor pseudocoelomate must, acomponent from their digestive devices, have actually bodies that A) are solid via tissue. B) lack the ability to metabolize food. C) are incapable of muscular contractivity. D) absence true tproblems. E) absence mesodermally acquired tproblems.
What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates have A) a body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have a solid body. B) tworries obtained from mesoderm, whereas pseudocoelomates have no such tconcern. C) a body cavity entirely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.
Which of the following functions is an advantage of a fluid-filled body cavity? A) Internal organs are cushioned and safeguarded from injury. B) Organs can thrive and relocate independently of the external body wall. C) The liquid within the cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton. D) A and C just E) A, B, and also C
The blastopore denotes the presence of an endoderm-lined cavity in the emerging embryo,a cavity that is recognized as the A) archenteron. B) blastula. C) coelom. D) germ layer. E) blastocoel.
Which of the complying with is descriptive of protostomes? A) spiral and indeterminate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth B) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth C) spiral and also determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus D) radial and also determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus
Which of the complying with was the leastern likely element resulting in the Cambrian explosion? A) the emergence of predator-prey relationships between animals B) the accumulation of diverse adaptations, such as shells and different settings of locoactivity C) the motion of pets onto land also D) the evolution of Hox genes that managed development
Acoelomates are identified by A) the absence of a brain. B) the lack of mesoderm. C) deuterostome advancement. D) a coelom that is not totally lined via mesoderm. E) a solid body without a cavity bordering inner organs.
The difference between sponges and other animal phyla is based greatly on the absence versus the existence of A) a body cavity. B) a finish digestive tract. C) a circulatory mechanism. D) true tworries. E) mesoderm.
Which of the adhering to is a mutual characteristic of all chordates? A) scales B) jaws C) vertebrae D) dorsal, hollow nerve cord E) four-chambered heart
Which of these are qualities of all chordays during at least a section of their development? A) a dorsal, hollow nerve cord B) pharyngeal clefts C) post-anal tail D) A and also B only E) A, B, and C
Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have actually functioned first as A) the digestive system"s opening. B) suspension-feeding devices. C) components of the jaw. D) gill slits for respiration. E) parts of the inner ear.
Which extant chordates are postulated to be a lot of choose the earliest chordates in appearance? A) lancelets B) adult tunicates C) amphibians D) reptiles E) chondrichthyans
The beginning of the craniates developed at roughly the same time as the A) origin of the Ediacaran fauna. B) Cambrian explosion. C) Permian extinctions. D) initially invertebprices attacked land also. E) origin of lancelets.
What execute craniates have actually that earlier chordates did not have? A) brain B) vertebrae C) post-anal tail D) partial or complete skull E) bone
Lampreys differ from hagfishes in A) doing not have jaws. B) having actually a cranium. C) having pharyngeal clefts that construct into pharyngeal slits. D) having a notochord throughout life. E) having actually a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.
The earliest known mineralized frameworks in vertebprices are connected via which function? A) remanufacturing B) feeding C) locomovement D) defense E) respiration
The endoskelelots of many vertebrates are composed of calcified A) cartilage. B) silica. C) chitin. D) dentin. E) enamel.
According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were obtained by the alteration of A) scales of the reduced lip. B) skeletal rods that had supported pharyngeal (gill) slits. C) one or even more gill slits. D) one or even more of the bones of the cranium. E) one or even more of the vertebrae.

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All of these could have actually been oboffered in the prevalent ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans, except A) a mineralized, bony skeleton. B) scales. C) lungs. D) gills. E) a swim bladder.
What is a distinctive function of the chondrichthyans? A) an amniotic egg B) unpaired fins C) an acute feeling of vision that consists of the capability to identify colors D) a largely cartilaginous endoskeleton E) lack of jaws
To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans many closely connected in a structural sense? A) osteichthyan scales B) reptilian scales C) mammalian scales D) bird scales E) chondrichthyan teeth
Which group"s members had actually (have) both lungs and also gills in the time of their adult lives? A) sharks, skates, and also rays B) lungfishes C) lanceallows D) amphibians E) ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs
Which of these is not considered an amniote? A) amphibians B) nonbird reptiles C) birds D) egg-laying mammals E) placental mammals
Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"? A) Cenozoic B) Mesozoic C) Paleozoic D) Precambrian E) Cambrian
From which of the following teams are snakes most most likely descended? A) dinosaurs B) plesiosaurs C) lizards D) crocodiles E) synapsids
Many dinosaurs and also pterosaurs end up being extinct at the cshed of the __________ era. A) Cretaceous B) Permian C) Devonian D) Ordovician E) Triassic
Which of the complying with are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs? A) lizards B) crocodiles C) snakes D) birds E) mammals
Differentiation of teeth is observed in A) sharks. B) bony fishes. C) amphibians. D) reptiles. E) mammals
Which is characteristic of all mammals, and only of mammals? A) a four-chambered heart that stays clear of mixing of oxygenated and also deoxygenated blood B) offering birth to live young (viviparous) C) parental care of offspring D) having actually glands to produce nourishing milk for offspring E) utilizing the rib cage to assist in ventilating the lungs
How are primates different from all other mammals? A) placental embryonic breakthrough B) hairy bodies C) arboreal lifeformats D) capacity to create milk E) opposable thumbs in many type of species
In which vertebprices is fertilization specifically internal? A) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and also mammals B) amphibians, mammals, and reptiles C) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles D) reptiles and also mammals E) reptiles and amphibians
May have actually lungs, or gills, and also might use skin as a respiratory surchallenge A) amphibians B) nonbird reptiles C) chondrichthyans D) mammals E) birds
No urinary bladder, females with one odiffer, no teeth A) amphibians B) nonbird reptiles C) chondrichthyans D) mammals E) birds
Which are the a lot of abundant and also diverse of the extant vertebrates? A) ray-finned fishes B) birds C) amphibians D) nonbird reptiles E) mammals
Which of these hominin traits seems to have actually emerged prior to the others? A) tool usage B) boosted brain dimension C) symbolic assumed D) language E) bipedalism
Which of these species was the initially to have actually been adapted for long-distance bipedalism? A) H. heidelbergensis B) H. erectus C) H. ergaster D) H. habilis E) H. sapiens
Which of these species was the initially to craft stone tools? A) H. heidelbergensis B) H. erectus C) H. ergaster D) H. habilis E) H. sapiens
Which of these species was the first to have some members migrate out of Africa? A) H. heidelbergensis B) H. erectus C) H. ergaster D) H. habilis E) H. sapiens
Which of these species is currently thought to be the straight ancestor of H. neanderthalensis? A) H. heidelbergensis B) H. erectus C) H. ergaster D) H. habilis E) H. sapiens
Which of these species demonstrates symbolic assumed, art, and also full-blvery own language? A) H. heidelbergensis B) H. erectus C) H. ergaster D) H. habilis E) H. sapiens
Vertebrates and also tunicates share A) jaws adapted for feeding. B) a high degree of cephalization. C) the formation of structures from the neural cremainder. D) an endoskeleton that contains a skull. E) a notochord and also a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had actually a brain and also a skull. These animals may represent A) the initially chordays. B) a "absent link" between urochordates and cephalochordates. C) early on craniates. D) marsupials. E) nontetrapod gnathostomes.
Which of the complying with can be taken into consideration the most current prevalent ancestor of living tetrapods? A) a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appenderas had actually skeletal supports comparable to those of terrestrial vertebprices B) an armored, jawed placoderm that had actually 2 sets of paired appendages C) an early ray-finned fish that developed bony skeletal supports in its paired fins
Mammals and living birds share every one of the adhering to features other than A) endothermy. B) descent from a common amniotic ancestor. C) a dorsal, hollow nerve cord. D) an archosaur prevalent ancestor. E) an amniotic egg.
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials A) absence nipples. B) have actually some embryonic development outside the mother"s uterus. C) lay eggs. D) are uncovered in Australia and also Africa. E) include just insectivores and herbivores.
As people diverged from various other primates, which of the adhering to showed up first? A) the advance of innovation B) language C) bipedal locoactivity D) making stone devices E) an enlarged brain