2 Herodotus: Persian Wars and … Thucydides: Peloponnesian WarsHerodotus - The “Father of History” Described the Persian invasions of Greece… He embelliburned facts with fable, superstition and also hearsay. Thucydides- the “initially scientific historian” – he created an accurate and also impartial account of the Peloponnesian Wars

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5 Over 600 poli consisted of the Hellenic worldSparta (Grk. Σπάρτη) was an old city in Greece, the capital of Laconia and the a lot of effective state of the Peloponnesus. The city lay at the northern end of the central Laconian plain, on the right financial institution of the river Eurotas. The website is strategically sited, guarded from 3 sides by hills, and controls the courses whereby an army can penetrate Laconia and the southern Peloponnessus and the Langhda Pass over Mt Taygetus connecting Laconia and also Messenia. At the exact same time its distance from the sea—Sparta is 27 miles from its seaport, Gythium—made it tough to blockade.

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6 Spartan warriors, c. 450 BC Settled by Dorian invaders, Sparta dominated surrounding Messenia, forcing the people to occupational as farm laborers or helots. The Spartan aim was to develop strong-bopassed away, fearmuch less guys and also women to preserve their power Spartan boys left home at age 7 and also invested the next 23 years in army barracks all set for fight at a moments alert. In all of Greece, tbelow were no braver warriors than them. Admired by other Greeks for their courage, self-control, respect for legislation, physical training and army prowess

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7 The ruins of Old SpartaThe dual kingship of Sparta, a phenomenon distinct in background, was explained in Sparta by the legacy that on Aristodemus"s death he had been flourished by his twin sons, and also that this joint ascendancy had been perpetuated. Modern scholars have actually progressed assorted theories to account for the anomaly. Some intend that it have to be explained as an attempt to avoid absolutism, and is paralleled by the analogous circumstances of the consuls at Rome. Others think that it points to a weaken arrived at to finish the battle in between 2 families or neighborhoods, or that the 2 imperial residences reexisting respectively the Spartan conquerors and their Achaean predecessors: those who hold this last check out appeal to the words attributed by Herodotus (v. 72) to Cleomenes I: "I am no Dorian, yet an Achaean."

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8 Athens, cradle of democracy

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9 The polis developed into a self-governing community that expressed the will of cost-free citizens, not the desires of gods, hereditary emperors or clergymans.

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10 The excellent Greek contribution to political life:Individual members shared a sense of belonging to and participating in the polis. Community problems are resulted in by people and require human solutions. Laws expressed the rational mind of the community to incertain its will certainly and also requirements are met.

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11 Draco Solon 620’sBC ’sBC Pisistratus, 540’s BC Cleisthenes, 500’s BC

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13 Divided into 20 provinces (satrapies) Cyrus the Great and also his sons after him properly administered their large empire by: Divided right into 20 districts (satrapies) Special agents who answered only to the king Use of an main language (Aramaic) Netjob-related of roads and also postal mechanism Common device of weights and also procedures Realm wide coinage Fusion of Near Eastern cultural heritages Promoted one religion: Zoroastrianism (Ahura Mazda & Ahriman) .

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14 Cyrus the Great, was the world’s first civilization emperor to openly declare and also guarantee the sanctity of huguy civil liberties and also individual liberty. The Greek warrior-historian Xenophon, spoke very of Cyrus in his Cyropaedia. Cyrus is defined as being void of deceit, arrogance, guile or selfishness. Cyrus is the first “one human being hero” in history, namely the ruler who sneed to unite all the individuals into one empire while according full respect to all languperiods, creeds and spiritual practices. Alexander the Great, that significantly admired Cyrus, adopted his mantle of the “civilization hero” after his conquests of Persia in BC.

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16 The Ionian Revolt, BC The Ionian Revolts were prompted by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the finish of the sixth century BC and start of the 5th century BC. They made up the first significant conflict in between Greece and also the Persian Realm. Most of the Greek cities occupied by the Persians in Asia Minor and also Cyprus climbed up against their Persian rulers in a battle lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. The Ionians had actually early success with the sack of Sardis, but the taking place Persian counterattack by both the army and also navy was also strong: the Ionians were decisively beat at the Battle of Lade off the coastline of Miletus in 494 BC.

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17 King Darius I, BC Decided to punish the city of Athens for assisting the rebels in the time of the Ionian Revolt of 499 BC. The beginning of the 5th Century BC in Greece was noted by the Persian Wars which started in 499 and ongoing on and also off until 480. Persia at this time had a realm which spcheck out throughout fifty percent of well-known Asia (the area that was under its manage was actually also larger than that of Rome at its peak). It also had a substantial multi-national army that it supplied to dominate surrounding states. Although for some time Greek colonies bordering the Persian empire had been paying tributes to Persia, in 499 they began to rebel. The city of Athens agreed to aid those cities that were fighting the Persians, going so far as to damage Sardis, a crucial Persian city. Once rebellion had been quelled in the nests, the leader of Persia, Darius the Great, chose to rotate his attention to those Greeks cities on the mainland that had defied him. In 490, he landed a huge pressure at Marathon, a bay just 26 miles from Athens. Despite being confronted by the much bigger Persian army, Athens ultimately won the fight, killing 6,400 Persians and shedding just 192 of its very own soldiers.

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18 Marathon Darius introduced his second attempt, aacquire by sea but via a more southernly route. This expedition brought about the Battle of Marathon. Throughout the 2 year interval he sent out heralds to the Greek city-claims. The heralds, as was the tradition, asked for "earth and water" as a token of submission. Many type of of the Greek city-states acquiesced but many did not, consisting of the two most vital, Sparta and Athens. The Athenians threw the heralds off the Acropolis and the Spartans threw them dvery own a well wright here there was plenty of "earth and water". The Athenians even executed the unfortunate translator of the Persian demand for defiling the Greek language. War was now specific.

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19 The Hoplite: Greek footsoldiersMiltiades struck at dawn. The Athenians charged at a run. The Persians waited, not really believing that anyone could run that far and also still fight well. They routed the Greek weak center and also charged up the valley. The Greeks retreated, pulling the Persians forward and also extending their lines. Then the Greek wings dropped upon the Persian flanks while the center unexpectedly stood firm. The Persians damaged ranks and also began to retreat. As the Greeks pressed, the retreat ended up being a rout. The Greeks harried them all the method to the beach and adhered to them into the water, swimming out after the watercrafts and also capturing seven Persian ships.

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20 Battle of Marathon, 490 BC Darius’ plan wregarding burn Athens to the ground as they had done to his city of Sardis throughout the Ionian revolt.. On the war to Greece, the Persian army of 30,000 had actually dominated a number of islands, had Eritrea??- melted dvery own the city and sent out its inhabitants earlier to Persia as servants. The 10,000 Athenians have to have actually been scared as the fight approached. Miltiades had actually sent out Phaedipides to Sparta, asking for their assistance. They were in the middle of a spiritual festival and Athens would certainly need to wait. Miltiades, the leader of Athenian pressures, when the battle started, ordered his males to charge double time. This diminished the amount of time Persian archers could refill their bows. Also Miltiades concentrated his major stamina on the flanks for this reason attacking the weaker, much less proficient guys, that were driven ago into a marsh. The flanks then turned about to assault the major Persian army from the rear.

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21 Battle of Marathon, 490 BC – Phaedippas brings the news to AthensThe Athenians had actually won at Marathon yet they absolutely had actually not ruined the Persian army. They had actually made plans prior to the fight that if they won, they would certainly gain word earlier to Athens as shortly as possible because they knew that the Persian fleet was certain to sail about Attica and also attempt to take the city while it was unsafeguarded. The citizens were to man the wall surfaces and make it show up that Athens was strongly defended. Miltiades sent out a young soldier (more than likely Phaedippas) to take word earlier to Athens. He ran the entire distance, kms, shouted "We have actually won!" and fell dead of exhaustion. In memory of this occasion the Marathon Run was consisted of among the contests because the first contemporary Olympic Gamings. The Persians did indeed sail approximately Attica hoping to find the city helpless but once they met via resistance, they hesitated. Not long after, the Greek army arrived. The Persians determined they had actually sufficient of these Greeks and also cruised home. The Battle of Marathon is maybe the single a lot of necessary battle in Greek history. Had the Athenians lost, Greece would have actually inevitably come under the regulate of the Persians and all the succeeding culture and also achievements of the Greeks would most likely not have actually taken the create they did. However before, the Persian were not finiburned. In 481 BC, Darius I"s boy, Xerxes, gathered together an army of some one hundred fifty thousand also men and a navy of six hundred ships. He was established that the whole of Greece would certainly be overcame by Persia. A Sad Sequel The Battle of Marathon immortalized the name of Miltiades; but in a few years" time he fell from his high estate, for he failed in an expedition versus the island of Pa"ros. The Greeks had no pity for faientice. As they hooted versus uneffective atheletes in their games, so they jeered at Miltiades. Despite all the honors they had freshly heaped upon him, the human being hearkened to his adversaries when they said his faientice was because of criminal conduct of some sort. He was referred to as up for trial, though he was wounded and also forced to appear prior to his judges on a couch, he was fined fifty talents of silver, and as soon as he can not pay the debt he was cast right into priboy to die. So ended the life of Miltiades. Such was the gratitude presented by the Greeks to the hero of Marathon.

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23 Themosticles: Rushed the building of 200 triremesOrganized Greek city-says right into a defensive alliance that contained Sparta

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24 He sshould avenge his father’s defeat. King Xerxes, BC He smust avenge his father’s defeat. In 480 BC, his army of 360,000 foot soldiers and 800 ships marched over a bridge throughout the Dardanelles Xerxes I ruled from B.C., presiding over ancient Persia"s decline from mighty power to fading empire. His father Darius was defeated by the Greeks at the fight of Marathon (490 B.C.), and 10 years later on Xerxes assembled a large army to attack Greece and also avenge his father"s defeat. (The best-known reports on the invasion come from the historian Herodotus.) Xerxes crossed the Hellespont (currently called the Dardanelles) and methodically overran Greece. He won a costly victory at Thermopylae -- the renowned battle which ended through 300 Spartan warriors defying the entire Persian army in a last fight to the death -- and finally reached Athens and sacked the deserted city. But the invasion ended in disaster when the Persian navy was routed by the Greek fleet at Salamis (480 B.C.). Xerxes retreated to his palace in Persepolis, leaving behind an occupying army which was defeated by the Greeks shortly afterwards. Persia continued to be a formidable nation yet Xerxes withdrew from active life, devoting himself to what Herodotus called "the intrigues of the harem." 15 years later on Xerxes was stabbed to fatality, probably by his subordinate Artabanus, and was flourished by his son Artaxerxes. XERXES I AND THE INVASION OF GREECE Xerxes went to dominate the Greeks through an army of approx. 360,000 males and 800 ships. Herodotus states it was 5,000,000 troops out of 50 nations, yet you can"t always take the excellent guy literally. Fact is, it was a vast army. The march from what is now Turkey to Greece was a major operation. A bridge was constructed over what is today"s Dardanelles Strait and a critical victory was won at the Battle of Thermopylae in mid-August 480 BC. Later that year, on September 21, Xerxes sacked Athens. However before, the huge dimension of his army verified its drawback: logistics. The Greeks had actually significant obstacles providing their troops and also, after a defeat in the naval Battle off the island of Salamis close to Athens on September 29, Xerxes was eager to gain ago house ASAP. Here is even more about the Greco-Persian Wars. Back house in Persia, Xerxes launched a vast building and construction regime. Court intrigues finally uncovered Xerxes himself a victim. Xerxes was murdered by the chief of his guard, Artabanus. Xerxes"s son Artaxerxes I flourished him to the throne.

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26 Thermopylae

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27 King Xerxes & the 2nd Persian War, 480-479 BCDarius died in 486 and also he was flourished by his son Xerxes. Gathering together an also bigger force than his father had actually (around 300,000 soldiers and 600 ships), Xerxes determined to pick up wbelow his father had actually left off and also attacked Greece in 480. "I will bridge the Hellespont and also march an army through Europe into Greece, and also punish the Athenians for the outrage they committed upon my father and upon us. As you experienced, Darius himself was making his preparations for battle against these men; yet fatality prevented him from carrying out his function. I therefore, on his befifty percent, and for the benefit of all my subjects, will certainly not remainder until I have actually taken Athens and burned it to the ground, in revenge for the injury which the Athenians without provocation once did to me and my father....If we crush the Athenians and also their next-door neighbors in the Peloponnese, we shall extend the empire of Persia so that its boundaries will be God"s very own sky, so that the sunlight will not look down upon any type of land past the borders of what is ours" (Histories 7.8). On the way to Athens, yet, the Persian army was bottled up at the pass of Thermopylae by the Spartans under the leadership of King Leonidas. Although the Spartans were able to host the Persians off for some time, ultimately Leonidas and also all his guys were killed in battle. Xerxes proceeded to Athens, only to uncover the city deserted and also the Greek army and also navy rerelocated to Salamis. In retaliation, he had actually the city of Athens burned to the ground and also the Acropolis destroyed. The Greeks eventually scored one more major victory versus the Persians at Salamis, wright here under the leadership of Themistocles they decisively beat the Persian navy in battle on September 23, 480.

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28 The Athenians fled the city which was sacked and burned to the ground by the PersiansBut, the Athenians had actually a plan…

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29 Battle of Salamis The Athenians had fled to Salamis after the Battle of Thermopylae in August, 480 BC, while the Persians occupied and also melted their city. The Greek fleet joined them tbelow in August after the indecisive Battle of Artemisium. The Spartans wanted to go back to the Peloponnese, seal off the Isthmus of Corinth through a wall surface, and prevent the Persians from defeating them on land, however the Athenian commander Themistocles convinced them to reprimary at Salamis, suggesting that a wall surface throughout the Isthmus was pointless as lengthy as the Persian army could be transported and offered by the Persian navy. His debate depended upon a particular interpretation of the oracle at Delphi, which, in typical Delphic ambiguity, prophesized that Salamis would "carry fatality to women"s sons," yet likewise that the Greeks would certainly be saved by a "wooden wall". Themistocles construed the wood wall as the fleet of ships, and also said that Salamis would certainly lug death to the Persians, not the Greeks. Additionally some Athenians who decided not to flee Athens, understood the prophecy literally, barricaded the entrance to the Acropolis with a wooden wall, and fenced themselves in. The wood wall was overrun, they were all eliminated, and also the Acropolis was shed down by the Persians. The Greeks had 371 triremes and also pentekonters (smaller sized fifty-oared ships), successfully under Themistocles, however nominally led by the Spartan Eurybiades. The Spartans had extremely few ships to add, yet they concerned themselves the herbal leaders of any joint Greek military expedition, and also constantly insisted that the Spartan basic would certainly be offered command on such occasions. Tbelow were 180 ships from Athens, 40 from Corinth, 30 from Aegina, 20 from Chalcis, 20 from Megara, 16 from Sparta, 15 from Sicyon, 10 from Epidaurus, 7 from Eretria, 7 from Ambracia, 5 from Troizen, 4 from Naxos, 3 from Leucas, 3 from Hermione, 2 from Styra, 2 from Cythnus, 2 from Ceos, 2 from Melos, one from Siphnus, one from Seriphus, and one from Croton. The a lot bigger Persian fleet had 1207 ships, although their original intrusion force had many type of even more ships that had actually since been lost due to storms in the Aegean Sea and at Artemisium. The Persians, led by Xerxes I, chose to satisfy the Athenian fleet off the coast of Salamis Island also, and were so confident of their victory that Xerxes erected a throne on the shore, on the slopes of Mount Aegaleus, to watch the battle in style and also record the names of leaders that perdeveloped especially well.

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30 The huge fleet was consisted from 200 Egyptian triremes, 150 Cyprians, 300 from Phoenicia and also Palestine, 100 ships have contributed the Ionian cities, 100 the Celicians, 100 from Hellispontians and also the remainder from many type of various other cities. Totaling 1207 and supported from around 3000 smaller vessels. The fighting men on the triremes were around 36,000 and with their rowers 240,000. The Greeks alengthy the shore of Thrace and islands were contributing 120 ships. When the Persian fleet anchored on the coast of Magnesia, a vicious storm lasting for three days, ruined 400 ships and practically all the smaller sized vessels. This incident gave courage to the Greek fleet

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32 The Persian Wars were decisive in the background of the WestThe Persian Wars were decisive in the background of the West. Had the Greeks been beat, the social and political vitality we associate and also inherit from the Greeks would certainly never have actually progressed. The confidence and also pride from these victories pushed Greece and Athens, in certain, to its “Golden Period.”

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34 Pericles was the main figure in Athens during its Golden AgePericles, BC Pericles was the main number in Athens in the time of its Golden Period Pericles was the central number in Athens in the time of its gold age. Although he was extremely influential, and had remarkable affect via the masses, he thought it wise to spend a lot of his extrasimple career as a "behind the scenes" influence. Athens was well known for its fickle therapy of leaders who came to be to powerful, and ostracization was best avoided by maintaining a quiet demeanor. None the less, Pericles successfully controlled the democratic party, and in this position is a lot attributed for making Athens a good social facility. He was very influential in the advance of public functions, including the famous Parthenon, and the strategically crucial Long Walls that enclosed the entire city, and ran all the way to the port of Athens. It was under Pericles that Athens became the cultural center of the Mediterranean, and created much of the imaginative and literary masterpieces for which it is still renowned.

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35 The development of the Delian League, 478 BCIsland also of Delos in 478 BC Athens pertained to as leader and agreed to preserve a navy Members would contribute “dues” to pay costs for navy

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36 The corruption of the Delian LeagueAthens prevented says from withillustration & puniburned says who did not pay their dues In 454 BC treasury was relocated to Athens, Athens took 1/60th as tribute In 435 BC Athens aided Corcyra in its revolt versus Corinth. In 433 BC Athens ordered the city of Potidaea to demolish its wall surfaces and sfinish hostperiods to Athens

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37 The Spartan king Achidimus attacked Attica and also ruined farms and crops In 431 BC, - The Achidamian War BC. Sparta, with support of Corinth and also Thebes, attacked Athenian region. Pericles told Athenians to abandon the houses and also areas and also uncover safety and security behind the walls. Some thought this was cowardice. But Pericles planned to strike Sparta by sea utilizing the excellent navy. The Athenian navy was the best. With money from the Delian Organization, crews were paid to train longer and also harder. They also had the biggest fleet of Tri-remes (no examples have actually survived) The front of a trireme had a bronze ram that turned the ship into a guided missile. Enemy ships were hit head-on, making a hole in the hull and also sinking the ship. Each oar weighed around 13 pounds and also via 200 males rowing at 10 MPH, the outcomes were superior. In enhancement to its striking capability, a trireme carried a hoplite army. The strategy was to sail as much as a port, in a lightning strike, ruin as much as feasible, then sail away.

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38 . Pericles thought an assault would certainly happen, provided the tension through Sparta and also its league. The strategy of Pericles: use its power, the sea. Protection of access to the port was necessary for Athens’ survival. The Wall: While tright here already was 2 wall from Athens to the port of Piraeus. Pericles developed a 3rd, reducing the space in between them, however fortifying it to make it impenetrable. Today, nothing continues to be, but it was 8- ½ miles long, 16 feet wide and also 30 feet high. It was manned by a Rapid Response Force of placed troops. This cavalry was a major invention in Greek warfare. Entrances were safeguarded by archers that offered a brand-new bow, which might reach yards (presented from the north regions of the Babsence Sea.) In addition, slingshot snipers could fire a lead bullet that could kill a male. Athenians felt secure. The Peloponnesus war has actually been likened to 2 big kids on the block, but tbelow was just room for one. The causes for the war: aggressive actions by Athens. 435 Athens interfered via Corinth after its colony Corcyra asked for help 433 The City of Potidaea was told to tear dvery own its wall, send hostperiods to Athens Sparta assaulted Athens 5 times in ten years ( BC) but faibrought about breach the wall surfaces. However before, progressively, Athens started to wear down. What really did them in yet, ironically, was the result of their trade, their strength. Returning ships lugged typhoid fever for which no cure was well-known. One-quarter of the populace died- the decaying corpses have to have actually created a damaging smell. Pericles passed away in 429.

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39 429 BC Plague strikes down AthensWhen Sparta, the good land power, and Athens, the excellent naval power, ultimately concerned blows, everybody kbrand-new what the scenario was going to be. The Athenians let the Spartans conquer their territory in Attica while they took refuge behind their city walls, which extfinished to the port of Piraeus. With all the people concentrated in the city, a torment broke out that killed about one third of the human being, around 30,000 citizens, soldiers and seafarers, including their leader Pericles. The chronicler Thucydides himself was afflicted by the plague and also offers a renowned account of its symptoms.

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40 The Final Blow to Athens…The Spartan admiral, Lysander recorded the Athenian fleet in the Dardanelles …cutting of its food offers Athens was required to tear down its walls and also agreed to be ruled by a federal government appointed by Sparta

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41 Effects of the Peloponnesian Wars, 431-404 BCDespite the restoration of democratic government, Athens never went back to its former power… A spirit of pessimism and also disillusionment prevailed among pundits & the young Constant warfare among various other claims continued… In 371, Sparta lost its first war to Thebes The loss of manpower on both sides weakened every one of Greece .

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42 Philip II of Macedon 359-336 BCAn ambitious and resourceful ruler of Macedonia that collected his army and also planned to dominate the Greeks and also the Persians.

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43 A series of fiery speeches by Demosthenes“The Philippics” A series of fiery speeches by Demosthenes In 338 BC, Philip beat Athens and its allies and also created “The League of Corinth” Demosthenes negotiated an alliance through Thebes but the 2 were defeated by Philip at Chaeronea in 338 BC. Dem gave the funeral speech however it is shed. Antipater, the Macedonian governor of Greece ordered the execution of Demosthenes that took poichild.

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44 Alexander the Great, r 336-323 BCSucceeded his father Destruction of Thebes Alexander the Great, r BC Alexander the Great was the child of Philip II. His mommy was Olympias. She told Alexander he was the kid of a Greek god, and he appeared to think of himself as divine.. He was a pupil of Aristotle , among the foremany philosophers* of his time. He stupassed away literary works and learned to play the lyre* . He was fearless and solid as a young male. Alex succeeded his father- some historians believe he and his mother had actually something to carry out with the assassination- Destruction of Thebes- 335, a rumor that he was dead motivated a rebellion in Thebes. Alex marched on Thebes, destroying eincredibly building other than temples and the home of the poet Pindar. Alexander ended up being one of the biggest generals in background. When he overcame the Persians he honored their soldiers and commander that had passed away in fight. When he had won a fight, he combined the continuing to be soldiers of the opponent through his army to create a greater army. He normally did not allow his soldiers to mistreat the dominated civilization. He endured together with his soldiers once they were at battle. If they didn"t have water or food, he would certainly not accept food or drink either. When the soldiers were walking, he walked additionally and refoffered to ride or be brought. He set an instance for his troops. Once he was trying to capture a city which was on an island in the Mediterranean Sea. It was near the land, so he determined to construct a bridge to it. His soldiers put dvery own trees, reeds, and also rocks and they started to develop a peninsula* out to the island.


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The people of Tyre did everything they could to speak the soldiers, but in salso months Alexander"s troops had developed a bridge to the island and overcame the city.

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