What are the Main Types of Depreciation Methods?

Tright here are a number of kinds of depreciation expenseDepreciation ExpenseWhen a irreversible asset is purchased, it must be capitalized rather of being expensed in the audit period it is purchased in. and different formulas for determining the book valuePublication ValuePublication worth is a company’s equity worth as reported in its financial statements. The book value number is generally perceived in relation to the of an asset. The most widespread depreciation methods include:

Straight-lineDouble declining balanceUnits of productionSum of years digits

Depreciation expense is supplied in accounting to alsituate the cost of a tangible assetTangible AssetsTangible assets are assets via a physical develop and also that host worth. Examples incorporate building, plant, and also equipment. Tangible assets are over its helpful life. In other words, it is the reduction in the value of an asset that occurs over time due to consumption, wear and tear, or obsolescence. The 4 major depreciation methods discussed over are defined in detail listed below.

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1. Straight-Line Depreciation Method

Straight-line depreciationStraight Line DepreciationStraight line depreciation is the most commonly supplied and also simplest approach for allocating depreciation of an asset. With the straight line is an extremely prevalent, and the most basic, strategy of calculating depreciation price. In straight-line depreciation, the price amount is the very same every year over the useful life of the ascollection.

Depreciation Formula for the Straight Line Method:

Depreciation Expense = (Cost – Salvage value) / Useful life


Consider a item of tools that expenses $25,000 through an approximated beneficial life of 8 years and a $0 salvage value. The depreciation price per year for this tools would certainly be as follows:


Depreciation Expense = ($25,000 – $0) / 8 = $3,125 per year


2. Double Declining Balance Depreciation Method

Contrasted to various other depreciation approaches, double-declining-balance depreciationDouble Declining Balance DepreciationThe double decreasing balance depreciation method is a kind of increased depreciation that doubles the constant depreciation approach. It is results in a bigger amount expensed in the earlier years as opposed to the later years of an asset’s valuable life. The technique mirrors the truth that assets are commonly even more fertile in their at an early stage years than in their later on years – likewise, the helpful reality that any kind of ascollection (think of buying a car) loses more of its worth in the initially few years of its use. With the double-declining-balance approach, the depreciation element is 2x that of the straight-line cost strategy.

Depreciation formula for the double-decreasing balance method:

Periodic Depreciation Expense = Beginning book worth x Rate of depreciation


Consider a item of residential property, plant, and equipment (PP&E)PP&E (Property, Plant and also Equipment)PP&E (Property, Plant, and also Equipment) is one of the core non-current assets found on the balance sheet. PP&E is influenced by Capex, that expenses $25,000, through an approximated valuable life of 8 years and also a $2,500 salvage worth. To calculate the double-declining balance depreciation, set up a schedule:


The indevelopment on the schedule is defined below:

The start book worth of the ascollection is filled in at the beginning of year 1 and also the salvage value is filled in at the finish of year 8.The price of depreciation (Rate) is calculated as follows:

Expense = (100% / Useful life of asset) x 2

Expense = (100% / 8) x 2 = 25%

Note: Due to the fact that this is a double-decreasing method, we multiply the rate of depreciation by 2.

3. Multiply the price of depreciation by the start book worth to determine the price for that year. For example, $25,000 x 25% = $6,250 depreciation cost.

4. Subtract the cost from the beginning book value to arrive at the ending book value. For instance, $25,000 – $6,250 = $18,750 ending book value at the end of the first year.

5. The ending book worth for that year is the start book value for the following year. For example, the year 1 ending book value of $18,750 would be the year 2 start book worth. Repeat this until the last year of beneficial life.


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3. Units of Production Depreciation Method

The units-of-production depreciation approach depreciates assets based upon the total number of hours offered or the full number of units to be produced by making use of the ascollection, over its advantageous life.

The formula for the units-of-production method:

Depreciation Expense = (Number of devices created / Life in variety of units) x (Cost – Salvage value)


Consider an equipment that costs $25,000, via an estimated total unit production of 100 million and a $0 salvage worth. During the first quarter of task, the machine produced 4 million devices.


To calculate the depreciation expense utilizing the formula above:

Depreciation Expense = (4 million / 100 million) x ($25,000 – $0) = $1,000


4. Sum-of-the-Years-Digits Depreciation Method

The sum-of-the-years-digits strategy is one of the accelerated depreciation techniques. A better expense is incurred in the at an early stage years and a reduced expense in the last years of the asset’s beneficial life.

In the sum-of-the-years digits depreciation methodAccountingOur Accounting guides and also resources are self-study guides to learn accountancy and finance at your own pace. Browse numerous guides and also resources., the continuing to be life of an ascollection is divided by the amount of the years and also then multiplied by the depreciating base to recognize the depreciation expense.

The depreciation formula for the sum-of-the-years-digits method:

Depreciation Expense = (Remaining life / Sum of the years digits) x (Cost – Salvage value)

Consider the complying with example to more conveniently understand also the principle of the sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation approach.


Consider a piece of devices that costs $25,000 and also has an estimated useful life of 8 years and also a $0 salvage worth. To calculate the sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation, set up a schedule:


The information in the schedule is explained below:

The depreciation base is constant throughout the years and also is calculated as follows:

Depreciation Base = Cost – Salvage value

Depreciation Base = $25,000 – $0 = $25,000

2. The continuing to be life is simply the continuing to be life of the asset. For example, at the start of the year, the ascollection has a continuing to be life of 8 years. The following year, the ascollection has a remaining life of 7 years, and so on.

3. RL / SYD is “remaining life divided by amount of the years.” In this example, the asset has actually a beneficial life of 8 years. Thus, the sum of the years would certainly be 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 36 years. The continuing to be life in the beginning of year 1 is 8. As such, the RM / SYD = 8 / 36 = 0.2222.

4. The RL / SYD number is multiplied by the depreciating base to determine the expense for that year.

5. The very same is done for the adhering to years. In the beginning of year 2, RL / SYD would certainly be 7 / 36 = 0.1944. 0.1944 x $25,000 = $4,861 price for year 2.


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Synopsis of Depreciation Methods

Below is the summary of all four depreciation approaches from the examples above.


Here is a graph reflecting the book worth of an asset over time with each various method.

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Here is an introduction of the depreciation price over time for each of the 4 types of price.


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