Learning Objectives

Understand also how charts can be offered to existing indevelopment. Exordinary the prestige of using graphs while speaking. Describe 4 common kinds of representations. Differentiate in between objects and models. Identify why speakers may usage human being as presentation aids.

As we observed in the situation of the orientation presentation at the organic farming conference, making use of presentation aids can be risky. However, through a little forethought and also adequate exercise, you deserve to choose presentation aids that boost your message and also rise your skilled appearance in front of an audience.

You are watching: The most common presentation aids are three-dimensional.

One principle to store in mind is to use only as many type of presentation aids as vital to current your message or to satisfy your classroom assignment. Although the maxim “much less is more” may sound favor a cliché, it really does apply in this instance. The number and the technological sophistication of your presentation aids need to never before overshadow your speech.

Anvarious other important consideration is innovation. Keep your presentation aids within the borders of the functioning technology obtainable to you. Whether or not your classroom modern technology works on the day of your speech, you will certainly still need to existing. What will certainly you execute if the computer system file containing your slides is corrupted? What will certainly you carry out if the easel is broken? What if you had actually counted on stacking your visuals on a table that disshows up ideal once you require it? You need to be ready to adapt to an uncomfortable and also scary instance. This is why we urge students to go to the classroom at leastern fifteen minutes ahead of time to test the tools and also asparticular the condition of points they’re planning to usage. As the speaker, you are responsible for arvarying the points you have to make your presentation aids work as intended. Carry a roll of duct tape so you have the right to display screen your poster even if the easel is gone. Find an added chair if your table has disappeared. Test the computer setup, and have actually an alternate setup all set in case there is some glitch that prevents your computer-based presentation aids from being usable. The even more sophisticated the devices is, the even more you have to be ready through an alternative, even in a “smart classroom.”

More important than the approach of distribution is the audience’s capability to see and also understand also the presentation aid. It need to provide clear indevelopment, and also it must not distract from the message. Avoid overly elaborate presentation aids bereason they can distract the audience’s attention from your message. Instead, simplify as a lot as possible, emphasizing the indevelopment you want your audience to understand.

Another point to remember is that presentation aids execute not “stop for themselves.” When you screen a visual help, you have to define what it reflects, stating and also naming the the majority of necessary attributes. If you use an audio assist such as a musical excerpt, you should tell your audience what to listen for. Similarly, if you usage a video clip, it is as much as you as the speaker to suggest out the features in the video that support the allude you are making.

Although tright here are many valuable presentation tools, you must not attempt to use eexceptionally among these tools in a single speech. Your presentation aids need to be designed to look prefer a coherent set. For circumstances, if you decide to usage three slides and a poster, all 4 of these visual aids should exploit the same type font and fundamental architecture.

Now that we’ve explored some fundamental ideas for preparing visual aids, let’s look at the the majority of widespread kinds of visual aids: charts, graphs, depictions, objects/models, and people.


A chartA graphical representation of information (often numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered procedure. is frequently defined as a graphical representation of information (frequently numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered process. Whether you create your charts or execute research study to find charts that already exist, it is important for them to specifically enhance the certain objective in your speech. Figure 15.6 "Acupuncture Charts" reflects two charts regarded acupuncture. Although both charts are great, they are not equal. One chart can be advantageous in a speech around the background and advance of acupuncture, while the other chart would certainly be more advantageous for showing the locations of meridians, or the lines alengthy which power is thshould flow, and also the acupuncture points.

In the rest of this area, we’re going to discover 3 common kinds of charts: statistical charts, sequence-of-measures chart, and also decision trees.

Figure 15.7 Birth Weight Chi-Square


Source: Woods, S. E., & Raju, U. (2001). Maternal cigarette smoking and the threat of congenital birth defects: A cohort research. Journal of the Amerideserve to Board of Family Practitioners, 14, 330–334.

For most audiences, statistical presentations have to be maintained as simple as possible, and they need to be described. The statistical chart shown in Figure 15.7 "Birth Weight Chi-Square" is from a study examining the results of maternal smoking cigarettes on a selection of congenital birth defects. Unmuch less you are acquainted via statistics, this chart might be extremely confmaking use of. When visually displaying information from a quantitative examine, you should make certain that you understand also the material and also can efficiently and also sindicate explain just how one have to translate the information. If you are uncertain about the information yourself, then you need to probably not usage this kind of information. This is surely an instance of a visual aid that, although it delivers a restricted sort of information, does not soptimal for itself.

Figure 15.8 Steps in Cell Reproduction


Source: Imeras courtesy of LadyofHats, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MITOSIS_cells_secuence.svg, and the National Institutes of Health, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MajorEventsInMitosis.jpg.

Charts are likewise beneficial as soon as you are trying to explain a process that involves a number of measures. The 2 visual aids in Figure 15.8 "Steps in Cell Reproduction" both depict the process of cell division referred to as mitosis making use of a sequence-of-measures chart, yet they each provide various information. The initially chart lacks labels to suggest the various phases of cell division. Although the first chart might have actually more color and also look even more polished, the missing indevelopment may confuse your audience. In the second chart, each phase is labeled through a brief explacountry of what is happening, which deserve to assist your audience understand also the procedure.

Figure 15.9 To Play or Not to Play


Decision trees are beneficial for showing the relationships in between ideas. The instance in Figure 15.9 "To Play or Not to Play" reflects just how a decision tree might be offered to determine the correct weather for playing baseball. Similar to the other types of charts, you want to be sure that the information in the chart is pertinent to the function of your speech and also that each question and also decision is plainly labeled.


Strictly speaking, a graph may be taken into consideration a form of chart, however graphs are so widely provided that we will discuss them independently. A graphA photographic representation of the relationships of quantitative information using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and also the choose. is a pictorial depiction of the relationships of quantitative data utilizing dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like. Graphs display the variation in one variable in comparichild with that of one or more other variables. Where a statistical chart may report the expect periods of individuals entering college, a graph would display exactly how the mean era transforms over time. A statistical chart may report the amount of computer systems offered in the United States, while a graph will certainly show the breakdvery own of those computer systems by operating systems such as Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. Public speakers have the right to display graphs using a variety of various formats. Several of those layouts are specialized for various experienced fields. Very complicated graphs regularly contain as well much information that is not pertained to the function of a student’s speech. If the graph is cluttered, it becomes tough to comprehend.

In this area, we’re going to analyze the widespread graphs speakers utilize in their speeches: line graphs, bar graphs, and pie graphs.

Figure 15.10 Enron’s Stock Price


Source: Image courtesy of Nehrams 2020, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EnronStockPriceAug00Jan02.jpg.

A line graph is designed to present fads over time. In Figure 15.10 "Enron’s Stock Price", we see a line graph portraying the fall of Enron’s stock price from August 2000 to January 2002. Notice that although it has actually some steep rises, the line has actually an all at once downward trend clearly illustrating the plummeting of Enron’s stock price. Showing such a line graph helps the audience see the relationships between the numbers, and also audiences deserve to understand also the information by seeing the graph a lot even more easily than they could if the speaker just review the numbers aloud.

Bar Graph

Bar graphs are advantageous for mirroring the differences between quantities. They deserve to be offered for population demographics, fuel expenses, math capability in various grades, and also many other kinds of data.

The graph in Figure 15.11 "Natural Death vs. Homicide" is well designed. It is relatively basic and is closely labeled, making it straightforward for you to guide your audience with the amounts of each form of fatality. The bar graph is designed to present the distinction in between herbal deaths and also homicides across miscellaneous age groups. When you look at the information, the initially grouping clearly shows that eighteen- to twenty-four-year-olds are more likely to die because of a homicide than any of the various other age teams.

Figure 15.11 Natural Death vs. Homicide


Source: Image courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and also Prevention, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homicide_suicide_USA.gif.

The graph in Figure 15.12 "Distribution of Income and Wealth in the United States" is a complicated bar graph illustrating the disparity between the haves and the have nots within the United States. On the left hand side of the graph you deserve to check out that the Top 20% of civilization within the USA account for 84.7% of all of the wide range and 50.1% of every one of the income. On the other hand, those in the bottom 40% account for just 0.2% of the wealth and 12.1% of the actual income.

While the graph is exceptionally well designed, it presents an excellent deal of indevelopment. In a composed publication, readers will certainly have time to sit and analyze the graph, yet in a speaking situation, audience members have to be able to understand also the indevelopment in a graph extremely conveniently. For that factor, this graph is probably not as reliable for speeches as the one in Figure 15.11 "Natural Death vs. Homicide".

Pie Graph

Pie graphs need to be simplified as a lot as feasible without eliminating important information. Similar to other graphs, the sections of the pie need to be plotted proportionally. In the pie graph presented in Figure 15.13 "Causes of Concussions in Children", we see a clear and proportional chart that has actually been color-coded. Color-coding is helpful as soon as it’s difficult to fit the explacountries in the actual sections of the graph; in that instance, you should encompass a legfinish, or essential, to suggest what the colors in the graph expect. In this graph, audience members deserve to watch exceptionally easily that falls are the major factor kids get concussions.

Source: Image courtesy of Brutannica, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_population_pie_chart.JPG.

The pie graph in Figure 15.14 "World Populations" is jumbled, illegible, confmaking use of, and overwhelming in eexceptionally means. The usage of shade coding doesn’t assist. Overall, this graph sindicate has as well much information and also is even more most likely to confuse an audience than aid them understand somepoint.


In the human being of presentation aids, representationsA presentation help designed to represent a real process or object. is the word used to classify a group of aids designed to reexisting actual processes or objects. Often, speakers want to visually show something that they cannot physically lug through them to the speech. Maybe you’re giving a speech on the huguy brain, and you simply don’t have actually access to a cadaver’s brain. Instead of bringing in a actual brain, you can use a photo of a mind or a picture that represents the humale brain. In this section we’re going to check out 4 widespread representations: diagrams, maps, photographs, and also video or recordings.


DiagramsDrawing that outlines and describes the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be conveniently seen. are illustrations or sketches that outline and also define the parts of an item, process, or phenomenon that cannot be conveniently viewed. Like graphs, diagrams can be considered a kind of chart, as in the instance of organization charts and procedure circulation charts.

When you use a diagram, be sure to define each component of the phenomenon, paying unique attention to elements that are facility or at risk to misexpertise. In the example displayed in Figure 15.15 "The Person Eye", you might wish to highlight that the light stimulus is reversed once it is processed via the brain or that the optic nerve is not a single stalk as many kind of people think.


Maps are incredibly useful if the information is clear and limited. Tbelow are all kinds of maps, consisting of population, weather, sea current, political, and also financial maps, but you should have the ability to uncover the best kind for the function of your speech. Choose a map that emphasizes the information you need to supply.

The map displayed in Figure 15.16 "Afrideserve to Map with Nigerian Emphasis" is basic, mirroring plainly the geographic place of Nigeria. This can be exceptionally helpful for some audiences that can not have the ability to name and situate countries on the continent of Africa.

Figure 15.17 "Rhode Island also Map" is a map of the state of Rhode Island also, and it emphasizes the complex configuration of islands and watermeans that characterize this state’s geography. Although the map does not list the names of the islands, it is beneficial in orienting the audience to the direction and distance of the islands to other geographic attributes, such as the city of Providence and also the Atlantic Ocean.

Source: Image courtesy of Mathieu Dréo, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tall_ship_rigging_in_amsterdam_cshed.jpg.

Sometimes a photograph or a drawing is the finest way to present an unacquainted but crucial information. Figure 15.18 "Wigwam Picture" is a photograph of a wigwam, a wigwam was a living dwelling used by Native Americans in the North East. In this photograph you deserve to watch the curved birchbark exterior, which renders this dwelling right for a range of weather problems. The photograph of the tall ship in Figure 15.19 "Ship’s Rigging" emphasizes the sheer amount and also intricacy of the ship’s rigging.

Video or Audio Recordings

Another very valuable form of presentation assist is a video or audio recording. Whether it is a brief video from a website such as YouTube or Vimeo, a segment from a song, or a item of a podactors, a well-preferred video or audio recording might be a great option to enhance your speech.

Imagine, for example, that you’re offering a speech on just how “Lap-Band” surgeries help human being shed weight. One of the sections of your speech could define exactly how the Lap-Band also works, so you might quickly display the complying with forty-three-second video to demonstrate the medical part of the surgical treatment (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPuThbFMxGg). Maybe you want to include a recording of a actual patient explaining why he or she chose to acquire the Lap-Band. Then you can encompass a podcast favor this one from the Medical University of South Carolina (http://medicaluniversc.http.internapcdn.net/medicaluniversc_vitalstream_com/podcasts/2007/1_Treado_June_22_final.mp3).

Tbelow is one major caveat to using audio and video clips throughout a speech: carry out not forobtain that they are expected to be aids to your speech, not the speech itself! In addition, be certain to protect against these three mistakes that speakers often make when utilizing audio and also video clips:

Avoid selecting clips that are as well lengthy for the in its entirety length of the speech. If you are offering a five-minute speech, then any audio or video clip you usage have to be under thirty secs in length. Don’t fail to exercise through the audio or video tools prior to speaking. If you are unacquainted via the equipment, you’ll look foolish trying to number out how it functions. This fiddling roughly will certainly not only take your audience out of your speech yet likewise have actually an unfavorable impact on your credibility. Don’t fail to cue the clip to the appropriate area prior to beginning your speech. We cannot tell you the number of times we’ve seen students spfinish handy speech time trying to uncover a clip on YouTube or a DVD. You need to make certain your clip is all set to go before you begin speaking.

Objects or Models

Objects and also models are an additional create of presentation help that deserve to be very useful in getting your audience to understand also your message. ObjectsA tangible, physical item a speaker might host up and talk around throughout a speech. refer to anything you might host up and talk around in the time of your speech. If you’re talking about the prestige of not utilizing plastic water bottles, you could organize up a plastic water bottle and a stainmuch less steel water bottle as examples. If you’re talking around the percussion family of musical instruments and you very own (and can play) a number of various percussion instruments, you deserve to show your audience in person what they look choose and also how they sound.

ModelsA three-dimensional re-development of a physical object., on the other hand also, are re-inventions of physical objects that you cannot have conveniently available with you throughout a speech. If you’re offering a speech on heart murmurs, you might have the ability to display just how heart murmurs job-related by holding up a model of the huguy heart.

People and also Animals

The following category of presentation aids are people and also animals. We can frequently usage ourselves or other world to adequately show an idea throughout our speeches.

Animals as Presentation Aids

When offering a speech on a topic relating to pets, it is often tempting to lug an pet to serve as your presentation aid. While this deserve to periodically add an extremely engaging dimension to the speech, it carries some significant threats that you should think about.

The initially hazard is that pet behavior has a tendency to be unpredictable. You may think this won’t be a trouble if your presentation help animal is a small enough to be retained confined throughout your speech—for instance, a goldfish in a bowl or a lizard or bird in a cage. However before, also caged pets have the right to be extremely distracting to your audience if they run about, chirp, or exhilittle various other agitated habits. The chances are excellent that an animal will react to the stress and anxiety of an unfamiliar case by displaying behavior that does not add positively to your speech.

The second hazard is that some audience members might respond negatively to a live pet. In addition to prevalent fears and also aversions to pets choose snakes, spiders, and also mice, many type of people have actually allergies to miscellaneous animals.

The third hazard is that some areas may have actually regulations around bringing animals onto the premises. If pets are permitted, the perboy bringing the animal might be required to bring a veterinary certificate or might be legally responsible for any damage led to by the pet.

For these reasons, prior to you decide to usage an pet as a presentation aid, ask yourself if you might make your suggest equally well with a snapshot, version, diagram, or other representation of the pet in question.

Speaker as Presentation Aid

Speakers have the right to regularly usage their own bodies to show facets of a speech. If your speech is about ballroom dancing or ballet, you can usage your body to show the basic moves in the cha-cha or the five fundamental ballet positions.

Other People as Presentation Aids

In many speeches, it deserve to be cumbersome and also distracting for the speaker to use her or his very own body to illustrate a allude. In such instances, the best solution is to ask someone else to serve as your presentation assist.

You must arrange ahead of time for a perchild (or persons) to be an efficient aid—do not assume that an audience member will certainly volunteer on the spot. If you plan to demonstrate how to immobilize a damaged bone, your volunteer have to understand ahead of time that you will touch him or her as a lot as essential to splint their foot. You have to also make particular that they will arrive dressed presentably and that they will not draw attention away from your message with their appearance or habits.

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The transaction between you and also your human presentation aid need to be appropriate, specifically if you are going to demonstrate somepoint prefer a dance step. Use your absolute best judgment about habits, and make sure that your human presentation help understands this dimension of the job.

Key Takeaways

Various kinds of charts have the right to assist audience understanding of a speaker’s message. Statistical charts assist audiences check out and also translate numerical information. Sequence-of-actions charts present how a process occurs. Decision trees help audience members check out how a specific decision deserve to be made in a logical fashion. Line graphs, bar graphs, and also pie graphs are typically used by speakers to assist existing numerical information. The indevelopment presented on a graph have to be clean and also quickly understandable from a distance. Representations are presentation aids designed to reexisting a real procedure or object. Commonly offered representations in public speaking encompass diagrams, maps, photographs, and also video or audio recordings. Objects are physical items that can be hosted up and offered throughout a speech. Models, on the other hand also, refer to tangible items that deserve to be hosted throughout a speech, however are not the actual object however fairly a facsimile of it. Speakers frequently will usage their very own bodies or the bodies of other civilization to assist them show a part of a speech. When utilizing an additional person, it is exceptionally crucial to coach that person before the speech to ensure that he or she will certainly not upphase the speaker. Using animals as presentation aids is primarily not recommended.


Find a speech on YouTube and also see what kinds of presentation aids the speaker uses. Does the speaker pick proper aids? How might you have actually made them better? Were tright here any type of lacking presentation aids that have to have actually remained in the speech? Create a chart representing the speech development procedure. Try making use of either a sequence-of-actions chart or a decision tree. Think about your following speech. What presentation aids can you use in your speech to improve your audience’s understanding?