For this evaluation we surveyed 3,030 UNITED STATE Hispanic adults in December 2019 as component of the 2019 National Survey of Latinos. We asked survey respondents around their awareness of the term Latinx and also their views of the term. The sample includes 2,094 Hispanic adults who were members of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited with national, random sampling of residential addresses. It also has an oversample of 936 respondents sampled from Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, another virtual survey panel likewise recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. For the purposes of this report, recommendations to foreign-born Hispanics encompass those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens by birth. The survey was performed in both English and Spanish.
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See the Methodology area of this report for even more details.
The terms Hispanic and Latino are provided interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term used to define world who are of or relate to Latin American beginning or descent. It is a gender-neutral or nonbinary different to Latino or Latina.
UNITED STATE born refers to persons born in the USA and also those born in other countries to parents at least among whom was a U.S. citizen.
Foregime born refers to persons born exterior of the USA to parents neither of whom was a UNITED STATE citizen. The terms international born and immigrant are provided interchangeably in this report. For the objectives of this report, foreign born likewise contains those born in Puerto Rico. Although individuals born in Puerto Rico are UNITED STATE citizens by birth, they are included among the international born for this report bereason they are born right into a Spanish-dominant culture and also because on many points their perspectives, views and beliefs are a lot closer to Hispanics born awide than to Hispanics born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, even those that identify themselves as being of Puerto Rihave the right to beginning.
Second generation describes human being born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia through at least one first-generation, or immiapprove, parent.
Third and also better generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia through both parents born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia.
Language supremacy is a composite meacertain based on self-described assessments of speaking and also reading abilities. Spanish-dominant civilization are more proficient in Spanish than in English (i.e., they speak and also check out Spanish “exceptionally well” or “pretty well” however price their English-speaking and also reading capability lower). Bilingual refers to world that are skilled in both English and Spanish. English-dominant human being are more knowledgeable in English than in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic labels describing the UNITED STATE populace of world tracing their roots to Latin America and Spain have been presented over the decades, increasing and falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in use are Hispanic and also Latino, with beginnings in the 1970s and 1990s respectively.
However, for the population it is meant to explain, only 23% of UNITED STATE adults that self-recognize as Hispanic or Latino have actually heard of the term Latinx, and just 3% say they use it to define themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of UNITED STATE Hispanic adults conducted in December 2019 by Pew Research Center.
The emergence of Latinx coincides with a worldwide motion to introduce gender-neutral nouns and pronouns into many type of languages whose grammar has actually traditionally supplied male or female constructions. In the USA, the first supplies of Latinx showed up even more than a decade ago. It was added to a commonly used English dictionary in 2018, mirroring its better use.
Yet the use of Latinx is not common exercise, and the term’s development has actually produced conflict about its appropriateness in a gendered language choose Spanish. Some movie critics point to its origins among UNITED STATE English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and its gendered develop.1 Still, tright here are examples of the term’s use in Spanish in the U.S. and awide.2 On the other hand, others check out Latinx as a gender- and also LGBTQ-inclusive term, reflecting a wider activity within the UNITED STATE around gender identity.
In addition, the UNITED STATE born are even more likely than the foreign born to have heard the term (32% vs. 16%), and also Hispanics that are predominantly English speakers or bilingual are even more most likely than those that greatly stop Spanish to say the same (29% for both vs. 7%).
Hispanics who identify with or lean toward the Democratic Party are more most likely to have heard of Latinx than those who identify via or lean toward the Republican Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness of the term Latinx does not necessarily translate into usage. Across many demographic subgroups, the share of Hispanics who say they usage Latinx to explain their own identity is significantly lower than the share that say they have heard it. Use is just one of the highest possible for Hispanic woguys eras 18 to 29 – 14% say they usage it, a significantly better share than the 1% of Hispanic guys in the very same age team that say they use it.
The appearance of Hispanic, Latino and Latinx
Throughout the last half-century in the UNITED STATE, different pan-ethnic terms have actually developed to describe Americans that trace their roots to Latin America and also Spain.
The term Hispanic was first provided by the UNITED STATE government in the 1970s after Mexideserve to American and also other Hispanic institutions lobbied the federal government to collect information on the populace. Subsequently, the U.S Congress passed Public Law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of indevelopment around U.S. citizens of Mexihave the right to, Puerto Rideserve to, Cuban, Central Amerihave the right to, South Amerideserve to and various other Spanish-speaking country beginnings. The legislation called for the UNITED STATE Census Bureau to create a broader category that encompassed all human being who figured out having actually roots from these countries. The term Hispanic was first supplied in a full census in 1980.
The 1990s brought resistance to the term Hispanic, as it adopted a strong connection through Spain, and an different term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the UNITED STATE Office of Management and also Budget issued a directive including the term Latino to federal government publications. The 2 terms are offered interchangeably, via Latino first appearing on the U.S. census in 2000, alongside Hispanic.
More recently, Latinx has emerged as an alternative to Hispanic and Latino. Online searcs for the term among the basic U.S. populace showed up online in the beforehand 2000s. But the first considerable increase in searches (loved one to all virtual searches) appeared in June 2016 following a shooting at Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance club in Orlanexecute, Florida, that was hosting its Latin Night on the day of the strike. In subsequent years, the term’s use on social media by celebrities, political leaders and also grassroots organizations has grvery own. In addition, some scholastic centers at community colleges, public universities and Ivy Organization colleges are replacing Latino routine names that were established in previous decades through brand-new Latinx-focused names.
In even more than 15 years of polling by Pew Research Center, fifty percent of Americans who map their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and also Spain have actually consistently shelp they have no preference for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to define the group. And as soon as one term is preferred over an additional, the term Hispanic has been preferred to Latino. Importantly, the very same surveys display, nation of origin labels (such as Mexihave the right to or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are preferred to these pan-ethnic terms among the populace they are expected to describe.
Google searches for Latinx increasing in UNITED STATE, but trail much behind Latina, Latino and also Hispanic
The loved one popularity of Latinx in digital searches in the U.S. has raised since 2016, according to a Pew Research Center evaluation of Google Trends data.3 While its earliest Google searcs extend ago to the beforehand 2000s, the highest possible monthly relative number of searcs for Latinx developed in June 2020, surpassing a previous top in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be embraced as a pan-ethnic term for U.S. Hispanics?
While some Hispanics say Latinx must be used as a pan-ethnic term, few say they favor it over others. A majority (61%) say they choose Hispanic to define the Hispanic or Latino population in the UNITED STATE, and also 29% say they favor Latino. At the same time, simply 4% say they prefer Latinx to describe the Hispanic or Latino populace.
Preferral for Latinx as a pan-ethnic term is better among those who are mindful of it – 10% in this group say they prefer Latinx. Yet even among those aware of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and also Latino (31%) are preferred.
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In their very own words: What does Latinx suppose to Hispanics?
When asked in an open-finished question what Latinx implies in their very own words, 42% of those that have actually heard the term explain it as a gender-neutral one. As one 21-year-old woguy sassist, “Latinx is a more inclusive term to use for those that execute not select to recognize via a particular gender. The terms Latino and also Latina are very limiting for particular people.”
Other responses from the open-finished question market other descriptions of Latinx and also reactions to it. For instance, 12% of respondents who had actually heard of Latinx express disagreement or disprefer of the term. Some described the term as an “anglicism” of the Spanish language, while others say the term is “not representative of the larger Latino neighborhood.”
Amongst other responses, 12% say Latinx is a term around being Hispanic or Latino, while 9% of those conscious of Latinx say it is an LGBTQ area inclusive term. And 6% of respondents that have heard of Latinx say it is a new, different or replacement term for Latino.