It takes a details amount of warmth energy or thermal energy to turn ice into water and also water right into vapor.

You are watching: To melt 50 grams of 0 degree celsius ice requires

When you heat a material, you are adding thermal kinetic power to its molecules and also commonly increasing its temperature. The only exemption is once the material reaches its melting point or boiling point. At those two temperatures, the heat power goes right into transforming the state or phase of the material. After the state has actually readjusted, the temperature will increase aobtain via included thermal energy.

The price temperature changes is the specific warm of the material. The amount of energy compelled to melt the material is called the latent warmth of melting. This all have the right to be depicted in reflecting exactly how much heat is forced to change ice into water and then change the water right into heavy steam.

Questions you might have include:

What systems of measurement are used in turning ice right into steam? How is certain warmth used? How is latent warmth used?

This lesson will certainly answer those inquiries. Useful tool: Units Conversion

Units of measurement

Since we are measuring the amount of warmth compelled to make these transforms, we must recognize the definitions of the miscellaneous systems involved.

Heat transfer

Heat is the complete kinetic energy of all the molecules in a things. Although power is generally measured in joules, a much more common unit for warm is the calorie, which is identified as the amount of warm compelled to readjust the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius level. Tbelow is a conversion variable to relate joules to calories, but we will not problem about that below.

Note: Calories are abbreviated as cal and grams as g. Also, oC implies levels Celsius.

In the English measurement system, they use the BTU (British thermal unit), which is the amount of warmth compelled to adjust the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 Fahrenheit degree. The BTU is watched in the USA when referring to the capacity of a furnace.

Specific heat

Materials differ in their capacity to save thermal power. For example, a product choose iron will warmth up much quicker than water or timber. The measurement of exactly how much heat is required to readjust the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree is dubbed its specific heat.

There are charts accessible listing the certain heat of miscellaneous materials. The chart listed below mirrors the particular warmth of ice, water and also heavy steam in devices of calorie per gram-degree Celsius.

(Note that all items are provided through the exact same variety of decimal points. That suggests the same accuracy for each. Also, the zero in front of the decimal allude assures that the reader will certainly recognize it is a decimal suggest and not a fly speck.)

State of water Specific warm in cal/g-oC







Specific heat of assorted claims of water

In other words, it would certainly take twice as many kind of calories to heat some water one degree than it would to warmth the very same mass of ice one degree.

Latent heat

When any kind of product is heated to the temperature wright here it transforms state, the temperature will certainly remajor the exact same until all the material changes state. That suggests ice water will certainly remain at 0oC (32oF) until all the ice is melted. The same point uses once cooling the products.

The reason is that energy should be expended to adjust the state from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas. Likewise, energy need to be withattracted to readjust the state as soon as cooling the product. The amount of energy forced is contact the latent heat of freezing or boiling. The chart below shows the latent heat or energy required to adjust the claims of water.

Change of state of water Latent heat in cal/g

Melting / Freezing


Boiling / Condensation


Latent warmth compelled to readjust state of water


A excellent means to understand also the concepts is to fix a difficulty.

Suppose we have actually 50g of ice at -10oC. We desire to heat the product till it all transforms to vapor at 110oC. How a lot warm is required?

With a trouble that is facility favor this one, it is great to break it dvery own into pieces and also deal with each component individually. This also helps to explain the logic offered in the solution.

1. Heating ice

How much heat would be forced to raise 50g of ice to its melting point?

The ice temperature should be increased 10 degrees to reach 0oC.

Because the particular warmth of ice is 0.50 cal/g-oC, that suggests that 0.50 calories is needed to raise 1g of ice 1oC. Therefore, it would take 50 x 0.50 calories to raise 50g up 1oC and 10 x 50 x 0.50 = 250 cal to raise the ice to its melting allude.

2. Melting ice

How a lot heat would be required to melt the 50g of ice?

The latent warm for melting ice is 80 cal/g. That indicates that 1g of ice requires 80 cal of heat to melt.

Therefore, 50g requires 50 x 80 = 4000 cal to melt.

3. Heating water

How a lot warmth is forced to heat 50g of water from 0oC to its boiling allude of 100oC?

Since the specific warmth of water is 1.00 cal/g-oC, that indicates that 1.00 calorie is required to raise 1g of water 1oC. Thus, it would certainly take 50 x 1.00 calories to raise 50g up 1oC and 100 x 50 x 1.00 = 5000 cal to raise the water to its boiling suggest.

4. Boiling water

How a lot warmth would be required to boil the 50g of water?

The latent heat for boiling water is 540 cal/g. That means that 1g of water calls for 540 cal of heat to boil.

Hence, 50g needs 50 x 540 = 27000 cal to boil.

5. Heating steam

How a lot warm is compelled to warm 50g of vapor from 100oC to 110oC?

Due to the fact that the certain warmth of heavy steam is 0.48 cal/g-oC, that indicates that 0.48 calories are required to raise 1g up 1oC. Thus, it would certainly take 50 x 0.48 calories to raise 50g of vapor 1oC and also 10 x 50 x 0.48 = 240 cal to raise the temperature of the heavy steam to 110oC.

6. Total

The full heat compelled to readjust 50g of ice at -10oC to vapor at 110oC is:

250 + 4000 + 5000 + 27000 + 240 = 36490 cal.


Heating materials favor ice, water and steam rises their temperature. The specific warm of the product determines the calories required to warmth one unit of mass one level.

Changing the state of the product calls for additional heat energy that is not supplied to readjust the temperature. The amount of heat compelled to readjust the state of the product is dubbed its latent warm. The complex trouble of determining exactly how much warmth is required to change ice right into water and then change the water right into heavy steam must be damaged into parts and also addressed individually.

See more: Form Of Communication That Reaches Large Audiences Without Personal Contact.

Heat up your thinking

Reresources and also references

Ron Kurtus" Credentials


Specific Heat Equations - Wolfram Science World

Physics Resources


(Notice: The School for Champions might earn comobjectives from book purchases)

Top-rated books on Thermal Energy


Top-rated publications on Physics of Temperature


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