palindromeA number or word that reads the sameway from appropriate to left as it does left to right. EX:


parabolaThe conic section created by a plane parallel to an edge of the conicalsurface.


paragraphproof Adevelop of composed proof in which conclusions and also justifications are combinedin sentences and put into paragraph form.

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parallellines Two lines in a aircraft are parallel if they have no points in widespread orare similar.


NOTE: two common symbolssupplied to suggest parallel lines are the additional arrowheads placed on thelines as you see in the example over and also also the || symbol.

parallelogramA quadrilateralthrough 2 pairs of parallel sides.


ParallelplanesPlanes which have actually no points in prevalent or are the same.


parentheses( )Grouping symbols which indicate the order of operations that have to befollowed in evaluating an expression; the work inside them have to be doneinitially.

patternA basic form for which tbelow are many examples.

pentagonA five-sidedpolygon.


percent% means times1/100 or .01, one one-hundredth.Ex: 7% = 7 times (1/100) = 7/100 or 0.07.

NOTE: Many type of peopleare not conscious of just how the principle of percents got began. If you know thislittle of math history, it may aid you remember how to use percent effectively.

Back in the Center Ages mostcivilization were uneducated and also illiteprice. The only human being who can check out,write and also carry out math were the clergymans. In an effort to store people ignorantof money matters, the clergymans told the people that numbers were evil.If they were to sheight a number or attempt to write it, the adversary would certainly entertheir souls.

Now this sounds crazy tous, yet the common, uneducated, serfs of the day thought it strongly.In fact, they thought it so a lot that as soon as a peddler would come totown trying to offer items for a given variety of gold pieces, the townspeoplewould certainly run him out of town, as though he were the adversary himself.

Well as you have the right to imagine,this made it hard to be a small businessman in the Middle Ages. To conquerthis trouble, the peddlers got together and determined to fight superstitionthrough superstition. They designed a symbol which would certainly "castthe evil out" of any type of number. This symbol was the percent symbol.So if you were offering a chicken and you wanted to say, "That willbe 85 cents please," you would have to say , "That will certainly be85 percent." Or you can compose % which would likewise castout the adversary from created numbers.

Basically in our number mechanism,the word percent indicates "penny". So 15% is 15 pennies or 0.15.200% would be 200 pennies or 2 full dollars.

It is remarkable just how even thoughpercents are not really needed this particular day, they are so installed in our culturethat you check out them almost everywhere money is being exchanged: stores, banks,investments, and so on.

perimeterThe sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon.... or the size ofthe boundary of a closed area.

perimeterof a polygonThe sum of the lengths of its sides.

perimeterof a rectangle2l + 2w where l is the lengthand also w is the width of a rectangle.


permutationan ordered setup of a set of objects. ex: if tright here are three publications X, Y, and Z they have the right to be arranged ona shelf in 6 various means (permutations)XYZ XZY



perpendicularThe nameprovided to rays, segments, or lines that develop appropriate angles.


perpendicularbisector methodA method for finding the center of a circle that requires drawing perpendicularbisectors of 2 chords. You have the right to usage this approach to percreate the reallycool trick of illustration a circle with any type of three non-costraight points.


perpendicularbisector of a segmentIn a aircraft, the line containing the midallude of the segment and perpendicularto the segment.

perpendicularplanesPlanes whose dihedral angle is a appropriate angle.


perspectivedrawingA illustration of a figure made to look as it would in the actual world. To achievethis illusion receding parallel lines are drawn to converge at a pointon the horizon called the vanishing allude.


pi Every circle,significant or small, has actually a one-of-a-kind relationship in between its circumferenceand its diameter. If you divide the circumference by the diameter youalways acquire the exact same number!

C/D is always approximately3.1415926535 ... .

Pi is an irrational number.That means that it is a decimal that never before repeats or terminates. It CANNOT be written as a portion specifically. The Greeks that first discovered thispartnership supplied the Greek letter to stand also for the decimal and we are still using it this day.

piegraph Agraph in which indevelopment is stood for utilizing a circle that has actually beencut right into sectors to present worths of a specific category. Also calledcircle graph.


pintA unit ofcapacity in the U.S mechanism of dimensions equal to two cups, or 1/2 aquart, or 16 ounces, or 0.473 liters.

pixelA dot on a TV or computer system display screen or various other monitor.

placevalueThe numbers that each digit represents in a decimal.In the illustration listed below, if you think of the one's place and also the decimalsuggest as the center, the names correspond on either side. Remember, thenumbers to the ideal of the decimal point constantly finish in "ths".


planeAn undefined geometric term. In Euclidean Geomeattempt, a plane is understoodto be a flat surchallenge that exhas a tendency infinitely in all directions..

airplane coordinategeometryThe examine of points as ordered pairs of numbers.

plane figureA set of points that are all in one plane.

airplane geometryTheresearch of figures which lie in the very same plane.

plane sectionThe interarea of a three-dimensional number through a airplane.

pointAn uncharacterized geometric term. In Euclidean Geometry, a point can be thoughtof as a dot that represents a location on a airplane or in room. These pointshave actually no dimension.

suggest oftangency Thesuggest at which a tangent intersects the curve (circle) or curved surface(sphere).



A union of 3 or more coplanarsegments (its sides) such that each segment intersects specifically 2 others,one at each of its endpoints (its vertices).


polygonalregionThe union of a polygon and also its internal.

polyhedronA three-dimensional surface which is the union of polygonal areas (itsfaces) and also which has actually no holes. Plural: polyhedra.


polynomialA monomial or a amount of any variety of monomials. An expression that isthe sum or difference of two or more terms.

EX: 3x + 4xy - 7

positiveintegerAny one of the numbers 1, 2, 3, ... . Also called organic numbers.Remember that 0 is neither positive nor is it negative.

postulateA statement assumed to be true. Also called axiom.

pound(lb.)A unit of weight in the U.S. system of measurement equal to 16 ounces.1 pound


powerThe answer to a problem

.In this power, "a" is referred to as the base and "b" is calledthe exponent.

ppmParts per million. This unit is generally usedin reporting the concentration of pollutants in water and also air. It meansthat in a mixture, tbelow is 1 part by mass of the topic product in1 million parts of the mixture. Hence in water, 1 PPM coincides to 1g of pollutant per million g of water,(or, even more accurately, of solution). By moving the decimal suggest, youcan watch that this is equal to 0.001 g per 1000 g, or 1 mg/kg. Because1 L of water weighs 1 kg, 1 PPM additionally synchronizes to 1 mg/L.

preimageThe original figure in a change.

preimagepointA point to which a change has been used.

preservedpropertyUnder a transformation, a building which, if current in a prephoto, iscurrent in the picture.

primenumberA positive integer whose just positive integer divisors are itself andone.

NOTE: One is not consideredprime bereason it has actually just one positive integer divisor, itself. Twois the initially prime number and also it is the just even prime.

prismTo produce a prism, start via a polygon base, then translate this baseto a parallel aircraft, then attach the corresponding vertices of the twobases.

probabilityA number from0 to 1 which shows just how most likely somepoint is to occur. A probabilityof 0 means the event cannot take place. A probcapacity of 1 means it will certainly definitelyoccur. A probcapacity of 0.5 means you have actually a 50% possibility of it happening.

productThe resultingof doing a multiplication.

Productof Reciprocals PropertyFor any kind of nonzeronumber n: n times 1/n = 1.

proofA sequence of justified conclusions, leading from what is offered or knownto a last conclusion.

Propertyof OppositesFor any number n: n + -n = 0. Oppositesalways include to zero.

proportionA statementthat two fractions (ratios) are equal.


NOTE: In a proportionthe product of the numbers on the diagonals will be equal.

Some folks say the "crossproducts" are equal and some say the product of the "means"amounts to the product of the "extremes".

proportionalnumbers Fournumbers that develop a true proportion.

proportionalthinking Thecapacity to acquire or estimate an answer to a proportion without going throughthe equation-solving process.

protractorA instrument offered for measuring angles. Click the word to get some disposableprotractors.

pyramidA polyhedron in which all however among the polygonal deals with intersect ata solitary suggest known as the vertex of the pyramid. The side whichdoes not intersect at the vertex is dubbed the "base".


PythagoreantheoremIn a right triangle through legs a and b, and hypotenusage.

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PythagoreantripleA collection of three numbers that deserve to be the lengths of the sides of a righttriangle.