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United States: Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, and also Kansas-Nebraska Act
Comguarantees over expansion of slaincredibly into U.S. territories.
Encyclopædia steustatiushistory.org, Inc.

Despite their opplace to slaincredibly, however, few Northerners made severe initiatives to eradicate it nationally in the time of the first years of the 1nine century. Tellingly, in 1831, as soon as abolitionist William Lloyd Garriboy started his newspaper The Liberator, calling for the instant emancipation of all enslaved people, he had just a tiny complying with. But as the country broadened and also its sections became more carefully entwined, sectional distinctions over the concern of slaincredibly ended up being visible in institutions across Amerihave the right to culture. Throughout the 1840s, mindsets toward slaincredibly led to splits in significant nationwide religious denominations, including the Methodists and Presbyterians. In national politics, the Whig Party, when an alliance of Northern and also Western conservative service interests through Southern planters, split sectionally and, adhering to the 1852 election, practically disshowed up.

The Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the development of the Republihave the right to Party

In 1850, sectional passions were inflamed once California applied to enter the union as a state that prohibited slavery. Compromise legislation—initially championed by Sen. Henry Clay of Kentucky however ultimately guided to passage by Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois—averted a likely civil battle by bundling admission of California as a complimentary state with a brand-new, even more aggressive Fugitive Slave Act, which provided for the seizure and also rerevolve of world that escaped enslavement (see Compromise of 1850). Although the Missouri Compromise had actually excluded slaincredibly from that component of the Louisiana Acquisition (other than Missouri) north of the 36°30′ parallel, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, sponsored by Douglas, gave for the territorial organization of Kansas and also Nebraska under the principle of famous sovereignty, according to which the world of regions would certainly decide for themselves whether to enter the union as claims permitting or prohibiting slavery. Some Northerners responded by organizing an antislaextremely political party, referred to as the Republihave the right to Party in a lot of places.

Bleeding Kansas, the Dred Scott decision, and the Harpers Ferry Raid

In the mid-1850s a digital civil battle broke out in Kansas, where rival state legislatures—one proslavery, the various other antislavery—both asserted legitimacy. Called Bleeding Kansas, this violent problem carried national attention to John Brown, that would certainly propel sectional tensions over slaexceptionally to a brand-new level in 1859 with his Harpers Ferry Rassist, an attempt to spark a enormous rebellion by enslaved human being. Before Brown’s raid, in 1857 the Supreme Court of the USA had added fuel to the fire of sectionalism through its judgment in the Dred Scott situation, concerning an enslaved perboy who asserted freedom on the ground that he had been taken to live in free region. The court’s ruling—that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that, because Babsence Americans were not citizens, they had actually no ideal to lug suit before the court—was acdeclared in the South yet condemned and repudiated throughout the North. For many type of Americans, the Dred Scott decision evidenced their belief that damage had been tired as a solution to the trouble of slaexceptionally.


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The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, 1950 (accession no. 50.94.1); www.metmuseum.org

The election of 1860

The 1860 presidential election verified just how deep the sectional chasm in the USA had grvery own. The Republican Party was not a national party but fairly a party of the North. The name of its presidential candidate, Abraham Lincoln, an ardent foe of slavery, would not even show up on the ballot in 10 states that permitted slaextremely. On the other hand also, as the election approached, the country’s only truly nationwide party, the Democratic Party, splintered. Douglas entered the party’s national convention in April as the front-runner for its presidential nomination, yet he was viewed as no friend of the South, and also, when the convention refsupplied to adopt the so-referred to as Alabama Platcreate, delegateways from eight Southern claims left the convention and nominated their own candiday, Kentuckian John C. Breckinridge, a holder of enslaved human being. Douglas came to be the candiday of the Northern Democrats. The field was completed by the last-minute formation of a brand-new party, the Constitutional Union Party, which rallied to assistance the Union and the Constitution without regard to slavery. John Bell was its candidate.


Cartoon of the 1860 U.S. presidential election showing three of the candidates—(left to right) Republican Abraham Lincoln, Northern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, and also Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge—tearing the nation apart while the Constitutional Union candiday, John Bell, applies glue from a tiny useless pot.

When every one of the ballots were counted, Lincoln was discovered to have caught just about 40 percent of the renowned vote. However before, he won all of the Northern states other than New Jersey and tallied sufficient electdental votes to case victory. The ultimate outcome of the election and also the country’s lengthy sectionalist struggle would be secession and also civil war.

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The Editors of Encyclopaedia steustatiushistory.orgThis short article was most newly revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.