Suffixes are necessary aspects of the English language. They are offered to make new words and also provide base words various interpretations. Tright here are vowel suffixes and consonant suffixes. Vowel suffixes encompass endings such as -ed, -er, -es, -end, and -ing. Consonant suffixes encompass endings such as -s, -less, -ness, -ment, and -ly. Adding suffixes to words have the right to be tricky to learn and master, but learning six standard sufsolve spelling rules will certainly aid you understand how to usage suffixes properly. Keep in mind that tright here are some exceptions to each of the sufdeal with rules.
You are watching: When adding a suffix that begins with a consonant, the general rule is to
Rule 1: Double the Consonant
Adding suffixes to some base words that end through a consonant requires doubling the last letter, yet just in certain instances.
Quick Vowel and One Consonant
When a word ends in a brief vowel sound complied with by a solitary consonant, the last letter of the word will should be doubled prior to the suffix is included.fat + -er = Fatterflip + -ed = flippedmud + -y = muddyshop + -ed = shoppedswim + -ing = swimming
Multiple Syllables and also L at the End
When a word has even more than one syllable and also ends through the letter "l," you will have to double the "l" when adding the sufsettle.cancel + -ed = cancelledcontrol + -ed = controlledpropel + -er = propellercompel + -ing = compellingfulfil + -ment = fulfillment
Exceptions to the Doubling Rule
The doubling preeminence does not apply to words that finish in "w," "x" or "y."
Rule 2: Drop the Silent E
The dominion for dropping the last silent "e" in a word is based upon whether the initially letter of the sufsettle is a vowel or consonant.
Silent E and Vowel Suffix
When a word ends in a silent letter "e" and you are including a sufdeal with that begins with a vowel, then drop the final "e."drive + -ing = drivinghope + -ing = hopingmake + -er = makeradore + -able = adorableuse + -er = user
Silent E Exception
There are a couple of words that satisfy the criteria for dropping the silent "e" via a vowel sufsettle, however through which the "e" has to be kept.prefer + -able = likeablesize + -able = sizeable
Rule 3: Keep the Final E
Tright here are a few cases in which the final "e" stays via a word as soon as adding a sufsettle.
Base Words Ending in CG or GE
When the base word ends in the letters "ce" or "ge" and also the sufresolve begins via the letters "a" or "o," the last "e" must remain.advantage + -ous = advantageouschange + -able = changeablecourage + -ous = courageousorganization + -able = serviceablenotice + -able = noticeable
Base Words Ending in EE or YE
You will certainly also should keep the "e" at the end of the word if it ends in "ee" or "ye."agree + -ing = agreeingdecree + -ing = decreeingeye + -ing = eyeingforewatch + -ing = foreseeingwatch + -ing = seeing
Adding the Sufsolve -ly
Remember to store the "e" if making use of the sufdeal with -ly.late + -ly = latelyrare + -ly = rarelylove + -ly = lovelyhome + -ly = homelydefinite + -ly = definitely
Adding the Sufsettle -ful
When you add the sufdeal with -ful to a word that ends through an "e," keep the "e."care + -ful = carefulusage + -ful = usefulpeace + -ful = peaceful
Rule 4: Keep the Y
Tbelow are a few scenarios that require keeping the "y" at the finish of a word as soon as adding a sufsolve.
Base Words Ending in a Vowel Then Y
When a word ends through "y" and has a vowel before the "y," then keep the "y" as soon as including a sufdeal with.reap + -ed = enjoyedplay + -ing = playingbuy + -er = buyerjoy + -ful = joyful
Adding a Sufresolve That Starts With I
Another time to store the "y" is if the suffix starts via the letter "i." Remember that a word cannot have actually 2 i"s in a row.concern + -ing = worryingcopy + -ing = copyinglug + -ing = carryingsupply + -ing = supplyingmarry + -ing = marrying
Rule 5: Change the Y to an I
There are times that the "y" at the finish of the word has to be changed to an "i" in order to include a sufsolve.
Base Words Ending With a Consonant Then Y
When the word has a consonant before the "y" at the finish, you will must change the "y" to "i" prior to adding the sufsolve.beauty + -ful = beautifulduty + -ful = dutifulhappy + -ness = happiness
Exceptions to the Y to I Rule
Not surprisingly, tbelow are some exceptions to this preeminence.dry + -er = dryerbaby + -hood = babyhoodlady + -ship = ladyship
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Rule 6: Change IE to Y
When a word ends in "ie," adjust the finishing to "y" as soon as you include the sufresolve -ing.die + -ing = dyingtie + -ing = tyinguntie + -ing = untyinglie + -ing = lyingvie + -ing = vying
Expand also Your Vocabulary
It may seem difficult to master these suffixes rules at initially. Tright here is a lot to remember, yet the initiative is worth it. Knowing the sufsolve rules will certainly open up up your vocabulary to endless expressions of thoughts and also eactivities. Once you understand the sufsettle spelling rules, the language possibilities are endmuch less. After you obtain comfortable through suffixes, emphasis your attention on how to usage prefixes. Then, reinforce your expertise and construct your skills with real practice making use of base words, prefixes and suffixes.