Learning Objectives

Understand exactly how communication networks affect communication.Recognize different communication directions within establishments.

You are watching: Which of the following communication media has the highest information richness?

The channel, or medium, provided to connect a message affects how accurately the message will certainly be received. Verbal, written, and nonverbal communications have actually various strengths and weaknesses. In service, the decision to interact verbally or in written develop deserve to be a powerful one. In addition, a smart manager is mindful of the nonverbal messperiods conveyed by either form of communication—as detailed previously, only 7% of verbal interaction originates from the words themselves.

Indevelopment Richness

Channels differ in their information richness. Information-wealthy networks convey more nonverbal information. As you might be able to guess from our previously conversation of verbal and also written communications, verbal interactions are richer than written ones. Research mirrors that efficient supervisors tfinish to use even more information-well-off interaction networks than much less effective managers. The number listed below illustrates the indevelopment richness of different information networks.

Figure 12.16 Indevelopment Richness


Source: Adapted from indevelopment in Daft, R. L., & Lenge, R. H. (1984). Indevelopment richness: A new strategy to managerial actions and business style. In B. Staw & L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 191–233). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press; and Lengel, R. H., & Daft, D. L. (1988). The selection of interaction media as an executive ability. Academy of Management Executive, 11, 225–232.

Like face-to-confront and telephone conversation, videoconferencing has high indevelopment richness because Receivers and Senders deserve to watch or hear past just the words—they can watch the Sender’s body language or hear the tamong their voice. Handhosted tools, blogs, and written letters and memos market medium-affluent channels bereason they convey words and pictures/photos. Formal written documents, such as legal documents, and spreadsheets, such as the division’s budacquire, convey the least richness because the format is regularly rigid and standardized. As an outcome, nuance is lost.

In company, the decision to communicate verbally or in created create can be effective. In enhancement, a smart manager is mindful of the nonverbal messages conveyed by either kind of communication—as noted earlier, only 7% of a verbal communication comes from the words themselves.

When determining whether to connect verbally or in writing, ask yourself: Do I desire to convey facts or feelings? Verbal interactions are a better means to convey feelings. Written communications execute a better task of conveying facts.

Picture a manager making a speech to a team of 20 employees. The manager is speaking at a normal pace. The employees appear interested. But exactly how a lot information is being transmitted? Not as a lot as the speaker believes! Humans listen a lot faster than they soptimal. The average public speaker communicates at a speed of about 125 words a minute. And that pace sounds fine to the audience. (In fact, anything much faster than that more than likely would sound weird. To put that figure in perspective, someone having an excited conversation speaks at around 150 words a minute.) On the basis of these numbers, we might assume that the employees have actually even more than enough time to take in each word the manager delivers. And that’s the problem. The average person in the audience deserve to hear 400–500 words a minute. The audience has more than sufficient time to hear. As a result, they will each be processing many type of thoughts of their own, on completely different topics, while the manager is speaking. As this instance demonstrates, oral communication is an inherently flawed tool for conveying certain facts. Listeners’ minds wander! It’s nopoint personal—in fact, it’s completely physical. In service, once we understand this fact, we have the right to make more intelligent interaction choices based upon the sort of indevelopment we desire to convey.

The crucial to reliable interaction is to complement the communication channel with the goal of the communication. For example, created media might be a better option once the Sender wants a record of the content, has actually less urgency for a response, is physically separated from the Receiver, doesn’t require the majority of feedago from the Receiver, or the Article is complicated and might take some time to understand. Oral interaction, but, renders even more feeling as soon as the Sender is conveying a sensitive or emotional Post, demands feedago immediately, and does not need a irreversible record of the conversation. Use the guide provided for deciding when to usage composed versus verbal interaction.

Figure 12.17 Guide for When to Use Written Versus Verbal Communication


Firm Use of E-Mail

The development of e-mail has been spectacular, yet it has actually additionally produced obstacles in regulating indevelopment and an ever-raising speed of doing company. Over 100 million adults in the USA usage e-mail consistently (at least when a day). Internet customers about the people sfinish an estimated 60 billion e-mails eincredibly day, and many kind of of those are spam or selectronic camera attempts. That makes e-mail the second most renowned medium of communication global, second just to voice. A 2005 examine estimated that much less than 1% of all written human communications even reached paper—and also we have the right to imagine that this percentage has gone down even better because then To combat the overusage of e-mail, carriers such as Intel have also instituted “no e-mail Fridays” where all communication is done through other communication networks. Learning to be more efficient in your e-mail interactions is an important ability. To learn even more, check out the business e-mail do’s and don’ts.

Firm E-Mail Do’s and Don’ts

DON’T sfinish or forward chain e-mails.DON’T put anypoint in an e-mail that you don’t want the human being to view.DON’T create a Article in capital letters—this is the identical of SHOUTING.DON’T regularly “cc” everyone all the time. Reducing inbox clutter is an excellent means to increase interaction.DON’T hit Send until you spell-examine your e-mail.DO usage a topic line that summarizes your Article, adjusting it as the Article changes over time.DO make your request in the first line of your e-mail. (And if that’s all you must say, sheight there!)DO finish your e-mail via a brief sign-off such as, “Thank you,” followed by your name and also contact indevelopment.DO think of a occupational e-mail as a binding interaction.DO let others know if you’ve got an e-mail in error.

An essential, although regularly ignored, dominance as soon as connecting emotional information is that e-mail’s lack of richness have the right to be your loss. As we experienced in the chart above, e-mail is a medium-well-off channel. It have the right to convey facts conveniently. But once it pertains to eactivity, e-mail’s fregulations make it far much less preferable a choice than oral communication—the 55% of nonverbal cues that make a conversation comprehensible to a listener are absent. E-mail readers don’t pick up on sarcasm and also various other tonal elements of creating as much as the writer believes they will, researchers note in a recent examine.

The Sender may believe she has actually had these emotional signifiers in her Post. But, through words alone, those signifiers are not tbelow. This gap between the develop and also content of e-mail motivated the rise of emoticons—symbols that market clues to the emotional side of the words in each Blog post. Typically speaking, however, emotsymbols are not thought about skilled in business interaction.

You could feel uncomfortable conveying an emotionally laden message verbally, specifically as soon as the message has unwanted news. Sending an e-mail to your staff that tbelow will certainly be no bonprovides this year might seem much easier than breaking the negative news face-to-challenge, however that doesn’t suppose that e-mail is an effective or appropriate method to supply this sort of news. When the Article is emotional, the Sender must usage verbal communication. Certainly, an excellent rule of thumb is that the even more emotionally laden messeras need more thought in the option of channel and exactly how they are interacted.

Direction of Communication Within Organizations

Indevelopment can relocate horizontally, from a Sender to a Receiver, as we’ve watched. It deserve to additionally move vertically, dvery own from height monitoring or up from the front line. Information deserve to likewise relocate diagonally in between and also among levels of an organization, such as a Article from a customer company representative as much as a manager in the production department, or a Post from the chief financial officer sent out dvery own to all department heads.

Figure 12.18


Communication flows in many different directions within an company.

Tright here is a chance for these arrows to go awry, of course. As Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, writer of best-selling publications such as Flow, has provided, “In big establishments the dilution of information as it passes up and also dvery own the hierarchy, and horizontally across departments, can undermine the initiative to focus on prevalent objectives.” Managers have to keep this in mind as soon as they make organization style decisions as part of the organizing feature.

The business condition of the Sender have the right to influence the Receiver’s attentiveness to the Message. For example, consider: A senior manager sends a memo to a production supervisor. The supervisor, that has actually a lower standing within the company, is likely to pay close attention to the Blog post. The same information, conveyed in the oppowebsite direction, however, can not get the attention it deserves. The Post would be filtered by the senior manager’s perception of priorities and also urgencies.

Repursuits are just one type of communication in company. Other interactions, both verbal or written, might look for, offer, or exreadjust indevelopment. Research mirrors that regular communications through one’s supervisor is regarded better job performance ratings and also all at once organizational performance. Research also mirrors that lateral interaction done in between peers deserve to influence important organizational outcomes such as turnover.

Figure 12.19 Who Managers Spfinish Time Communicating via at Work


Source: Adapted from indevelopment in Luthans, F., & Larsen, J. K. (1986). How supervisors really communicate. Person Relations, 39, 161–178.

Press Releases

Public relations specialists produce outside communications about a client’s product, solutions or practices for particular Receivers. These Receivers, it is hoped, will certainly share the Post via others. In time, as the Message is passed along, it have to appear to be independent of The Sender, creating the illusion of an separately created consumer trend, public opinion, and also so on.

The Post of a public connections effort might be b2b (organization to business), b2c (business to consumer), or media connected. The Blog post have the right to take different develops. Press releases attempt to convey a newsworthy message, genuine or produced. It may be built prefer a news item, inviting editors or reporters to reprint the Message in part, or as a whole, via or without acknowledgment of the Sender’s identification. Public relations projects develop Messages over time, with contests, special occasions, trade shows, and also media interviews in addition to push releases.


Advertising locations external organization Messeras before taracquire Receivers through media buys. A media buy is a fee that is paid to a tv netjob-related, Net site, or magazine by an advertiser for an on-air, website, or publication ad. The fee is based upon the perceived value of the audience that watches, reads, or frequents the room wright here the ad will certainly show up.

In recent years, Receivers have actually started to filter advertiser’s Messages, a phenomenon that is perceived to be the result of the big amount of ads the average perboy sees each day and a growing level of consumer wariness of phelp Messaging. Advertisers, consequently, are trying to create alternative creates of advertising that Receivers won’t filter. The advertorial is one instance of an external communication that combines the look of an write-up with the concentrated Post of an ad. Product placements in videos, movies, and games are other means that advertisers strive to reach Receivers via commercial Messeras.

Internet Pages

A Net page’s exterior interaction can incorporate facets of public relations, proclaiming, and also editorial content, reaching Receivers on multiple levels and also in multiple methods. Banner ads, blogs, and advertiser-propelled “click-through” locations are just a couple of of the facets that allow a company to deliver a Post to a Receiver online. The regarded versatility of virtual communications can imcomponent a less formal (and, therefore, even more believable) high quality to an exterior communication. A Article relayed in a day-to-day blog short article will reach a Receiver differently than if it is ceded in an annual report, for example. The popularity and also power of blogs is thriving, through 11% of Fortune 500 carriers having actually main blogs (up from 4% in 2005). In truth, blogs have actually end up being so vital to some suppliers as Coca-Cola, Kodak, and Marriott that they have created official positions within their institutions titled “Chief Blogging Officer.”Chief blogging officer title recording on through corporations.

The “real-time” high quality of Web interactions might appeal to Receivers who can filter out a standard ad and also public connections message because of its “prefab” top quality. Regardless of their “spontaneous” feel, many type of digital peras can be revisited in perpetuity. For this reason, clear and also precise exterior communications are as necessary for virtual use as they are in typical media.

Customer Communications

Customer communications deserve to include letters, catalogs, straight mail, e-mails, message messeras, and telemarketing messeras. Some Receivers immediately filter mass messages prefer these. Others will be receptive. The crucial to a effective external interaction to customers is to convey a organization message in a personally compelling way—dramatic news, a money-saving coupon, and so forth.

Key Takeaway

Different communication channels are more or less reliable at transmitting different kinds of information. Some kinds of interaction are information affluent while others are medium wealthy. In enhancement, communications flow in different directions within institutions. A major interior communication channel is e-mail, which is convenient yet needs to be tackled carefuly. External interaction channels encompass PR/push releases, ads, Internet pperiods, and customer interactions such as letters and also catalogs.

See more: Adlerian The Client’S Core Experience In Adlerian Therapy Consists Of:


How could you use your expertise of interaction richness to be even more effective in your own communications?What are the three best benefits and disadvantages you view concerning modern technology and also communications?Exsimple the distinction between interior and also outside interactions in an organization, giving examples of each.