Now it’s time to put your tough work on display. The manufacturing quality of your message—the total result of page or display screen architecture, graphical elements, typography, and also so on—plays a crucial duty in its performance. A polished, inviting architecture not only renders your document easier to read however likewise conveys a sense of professionalism and prominence.6

Designing for Readability

Deauthorize affects readcapacity in 2 essential means. First, relying on how they are supplied, style elements ca boost or decrease the effectiveness of your message. Thoughtful, reader-focused style renders messperiods less complicated to check out, whereas poorly favored design facets have the right to act as barriers that impede communication. 2nd, the visual architecture sends a nonverbal message to your readers, affecting their perceptions of the interaction before they check out a solitary word (see Figure 5.3 on the following page).

You are watching: Which of the following design elements creates visual contrast and resting points for the reader?

To attain an effective design, pay cautious attention to the complying with style elements:

■Consistency. Throughout each message, be regular in your usage of margins, typechallenge, form size, spacing, shade, lines, and also position. In many instances, you’ll want to be continuous from message to message as well; that means, audiences that get multiple messages from you identify your papers and also understand what to mean. Layout sheets and themes have the right to be a huge aid here.

■Balance. Balance is an essential yet sometimes subjective style concern. One record might have actually a formal, rigid design in which the assorted aspects are put in a grid pattern, whereas one more might have actually a less formal architecture in which facets flow more openly throughout the page—and both could be in balance. Like the tone of your language, visual balance deserve to be also formal, just appropriate, or also informal for a given message.

■Restraint. Strive for simplicity. Don’t clutter your message via as well many type of style elements, too many colors, or also many type of decorative touches.

■Detail. Pay attention to details that affect your architecture and also thus your message. For circumstances, exceptionally wide columns of message can be hard to read; in many kind of situations a far better solution is to split the text right into 2 narrower columns.

Even without one-of-a-kind training in graphic architecture, you can make your published and also electronic messperiods more reliable by expertise the usage of some essential architecture elements: white space, margins and line justification, typedeals with, and also type styles.

White Space

Any room totally free of text or artoccupational is taken into consideration white room. (Note that “white space” isn’t necessarily white.) These unused areas provide visual comparison and essential resting points for your readers. White area has the open area bordering headings, margins, paragraph indents, space approximately images, vertical space between columns, and horizontal space in between paragraphs or lines of text. To boost the chance that readers will certainly review your messages, be generous through white space; it renders peras and screens feel less intimidating and also easier to check out.7

Margins and also Justification


List four ethics of reliable architecture, and also describe the role of significant design facets in record readcapacity.

The high quality of your record architecture, both on paper and on display, affects readability and audience perceptions.

For efficient style, pay attention to





White area sepaprices aspects in a paper and also helps overview the reader’s eye.


114 Unit 2: The Three-Tip Writing Process

Figure 5.3 Designing for Readability

This webwebsite is a design of restrained design, which helps to emphasis the reader’s attention on the message.

MyBCommLab Apply

Figure 5.3’s crucial principles. Go to and follow this path: Course Content Chapter 5


right), (2) flush left via a ragged-best margin, (3) flush ideal through a ragged-left margin, or

(4) focused. This paragraph is justified, whereas the paragraphs in Figure 5.2 on page 107 are flush left via a ragged-right margin.

Magazines, newspapers, and publications frequently use justified type because it have the right to accommodate more text in a provided space. However, justified form needs to be supplied through treatment and also is not a good choice for a lot of program business files. First, it creates a denser look because the unicreate line lengths decrease the amount of white room alengthy the ideal margin. 2nd, it produces a much more formal look that isn’t correct for all situations. Third, unmuch less it is formatted via ability and attention, justified form can be more difficult to review because it deserve to develop big gaps between words and also excessive hyphenation at the ends of lines. Publishing professionals have the moment and skill necessary to closely adjust character and also word spacing to remove these troubles. (In some cases, sentences are also rewritten to improve the appearance of the printed web page.) Because most organization communicators don’t have that time or skill, it’s finest to prevent justified type in many service files.

In contrast to justified kind, flush-left, ragged-appropriate type creates an extra open up appearance on the page, producing a less formal and also even more modern look. Spacing between words is continual, and also just lengthy words that autumn at the ends of lines are hyphenated.



Typeface describes the physical design of letters, numbers, and also various other text characters. (Font and typeconfront are often provided interchangeably, although strictly speaking, a font is a set of personalities in a offered typechallenge.) Typeface influences the tone of your message, making it look authoritative or friendly, businessfavor or casual, timeless or modern-day, and so on (view Table 5.3). Be sure to select fonts that are appropriate for your message; many kind of of the fonts on your computer are not correct for business usage.

Serif typeencounters have actually little crosslines (called serifs) at the ends of each letter stroke. Serif encounters such as Times New Roman are frequently offered for body message, but they deserve to look busy when collection in large sizes for headings or other screen treatments. Sans serif typefaces, in comparison, lack these serifs. The visual simplicity of sans serif typedeals with such as Helvetica and Arial provides them right for the bigger sizes offered in headlines. Sans serif encounters can be hard to review in lengthy blocks of text, yet, unmuch less they are formatted via generous quantities of leading (pronounced ledding), or spacing between lines. Many modern papers and webperas currently usage sans serif for body text.

For most papers, you shouldn’t need even more than 2 typedeals with, although if you desire to make captions or other

text aspects stand out, you can usage another font.8 If in doubt, you can’t go too wrong with a sans serif typechallenge (such as Arial) for heads and subheads and also a serif typeface (such as Times New Roman) for message and also captions. Using more typefaces have the right to clutter a paper and produce an amateurish look.

Type Styles

Type style refers to any kind of alteration that lends comparison or emphasis to type, including boldchallenge, italic, underlining, and shade. For example, you deserve to boldconfront individual words or phrases to attract even more attention to them. Italic form has particular provides also, such as highlighting quotations and also indicating international words, irony, humor, book and also movie titles, and untraditional intake. Use any type style in moderation. For circumstances, underlining or utilizing all-uppercase letters deserve to interfere through the reader’s capacity to identify the shapes of words, imappropriately put boldchallenge or italicized form have the right to slow-moving down your reader, and also shadowed or outlined type deserve to seriously hinder legibility.

The timeless style of document style provides a sans serif typeface for headings and also a serif typeface for regular paragraph text; but, many type of modern files and also webpages now use all sans serif.

Avoid making use of any type style that inhibits your audience’s ability to review your messeras.

TABLE 5.3 Typechallenge Personalities: Serious to Casual to Playful


Sans Serif Typefaces

Specialty Typefaces

Serif Typefaces

(Best for Headlines;

(For Decorative

(Best for Text)

Some Work Well for Text)

Purposes Only)




Bookman Old Style






Century Schoolbook







Eras Bold

Old English





Franklin Gothic Book

Lucida Handwriting





Gill Sans

Spring LP




Times New Roman




Designing Multimedia Documents

A multimedia file consists of a mix of text, graphics, photographs, audio, computer animation, video, and also intertask (such as hyperlinks that accessibility webpages or software programs). The document have the right to be a portable, standalone file or

component of a webwebsite. Many digital media currently support multiple media styles, so you have a variety of choices for producing multimedia records. For example, you deserve to include photos to a word processor file, audio commentary to a PDF, video clips to a blog posting, and animation to webpages.

As affluent media (view page 64), multimedia files deserve to convey big quantities of indevelopment easily, connect human being in multiple ways, expush eactivities, and permit recipients to personalize the interaction process to accomplish their own demands. However, these documents are even more hard to produce than papers that contain only message and also static images. To architecture and develop multimedia papers, you need to take into consideration the complying with factors:

■Creative and also technical abilities. Depending on what you need to attain, developing and also integrating multimedia elements can need some imaginative and also technological abilities. Fortunately, many type of basic tasks, such as including photographs or video clips to a webpage, have actually obtained a lot easier in recent years. And via the appropriate software application, developing animations, videos, and screencasts is within the reach of most company communicators.

■Tools. The hardware and software tools necessary to produce and integrate media aspects are now extensively obtainable and also primarily affordable. For example, with simpler and also much less expensive consumer versions of skilled photo and also video editing software program, or also the many kind of complimentary tools available online, you have the right to regularly perform all the jobs you require for regime organization media.

■Time and also cost. Creating multimedia documents is easier than ever, yet you still have to think about time and also cost—and exercise good judgment when deciding whether to incorporate multimedia and just how much to encompass. Make sure the time and also money you setup to spfinish will certainly be paid earlier in communication performance.

■Content. To incorporate various media elements in a paper, you obviously need to produce or obtain them. Millions of graphics, photos, video clips, and various other elements are obtainable virtual, yet you have to make sure you can legally usage each item. One great choice is to search Creative Commons ( for multimedia facets accessible for use at no charge however through various limitations (such as providing the creator credit).

■Article structure. Multimedia files often lack a rigid direct structure from beginning to end, which implies you have to setup for readers to take multiple, individualized paths via the product. In other words, a standard outline is regularly poor. Chapter 11 discusses the difficulty of indevelopment architecture, the framework and also navigational flow of websites and also various other multimedia records.

■Compatibility. Some multimedia elements require specific software application to be mounted on the recipient’s viewing gadget. Another challenge is the array of display sizes and resolutions, from large, high-resolution computer monitors to tiny, low-resolution phone displays. Make certain you understand also the needs your message will certainly area on the audience.


Production devices vary extensively, depending upon the software and also systems you’re utilizing. Some devices sell limited formatting and also production capabilities, whereas some word processing software program now uses some capabilities that rival those of skilled publishing software application for many type of day-to- day service requirements. Deskheight publishing software application, such as Adobe InDeauthorize, goes past word handling, offering even more progressed and also specific layout capabilities that satisfy the technological needs of publication-high quality printing. (These programs are supplied largely by design experts.)

For online content, web publishing devices make it basic to produce great-looking webperas easily. Similarly, blogging systems currently simplify the manufacturing of blog content, letting you rapidly article new material without worrying also a lot around style or production. A range of devices additionally make it reasonably straightforward to develop multimedia presentations, such as screencasts (see Figure 5.4).

No matter what system you’re utilizing, become familiar with the fundamental formatting capabilities. A few hours of exploration on your very own or an introductory training course can help you substantially improve the production high quality of your files. Depending on the types of messeras you’re creating, you’ll advantage from being proficient through the adhering to features:

■Templates, themes, and also style sheets. As Chapter 4 notes, you deserve to conserve a tremendous amount of time and also ensure consistency by utilizing templates, themes, and style sheets.

■Page setup. Use page setas much as regulate margins, orientation (portrait is vertical; landscape is horizontal), and the location of headers (text and graphics that repeat at the peak of eexceptionally page) and footers (equivalent to headers however at the bottom of the page).

■Column formatting. Most company papers usage a single column of text, yet multiple columns have the right to be an attrenergetic format for records such as newsletters. Columns are likewise handy for formatting lengthy lists.

■Paragraph formatting. Take advantage of paragraph formatting controls to improve the look of your papers. For instance, you can counter quotations by raising margin width roughly a solitary paragraph, subtly compress line spacing to fit a record on a solitary web page, or use hanging indents to offset the first line of a paragraph.

Learn to use your communication devices properly so that you deserve to work productively.

Paragraph formatting gives you greater regulate over the look of your records.

See more: What Is The Theme Of How The Grinch Stole Christmas Analysis

Figure 5.4 Multimedia Tools

Deskheight software tools such as the Camtasia screencasting regime let service communicators assemble a range of multimedia files and also presentations.