|Electrolytes are substances which, as soon as liquified in water, break up intocations (plus-charged ions) and anions (minus-charged ions). We say they ionize.|
You are watching: Which of the following is a strong electrolyte?
Strong electrolytes ionize entirely (100%), while weak electrolytesionize just partly (generally on the order of 110%). That is, the principal speciesin solution for solid electrolytes are ions, while the principal specie in solution for weak electrolytes is the un-ionized compound itself.Strong electrolytes fall into 3 categories: strong acids,strong bases, and also salts. (Salts are occasionally also called ionic compounds, but really strongbases are ionic compounds too.) The weak electrolytes include weak acids and weak bases.Instances of strong and weak electrolytes are offered below:
|Strong Electrolytes||strong acids||HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, and also H2SO4||solid bases||NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, and also Ca(OH)2||salts||NaCl, KBr, MgCl2, and also many, many kind of more||Weak Electrolytes||weak acids||HF, HC2H3O2 (acetic acid), H2CO3 (carbonic acid), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), and also many kind of even more||weak bases||NH3 (ammonia), C5H5N (pyridine), and several even more, all containing "N"|
Being Able to Classify Electrolytes Is CriticalAs chemists, we should be able to look at a formula such as HCl or NaOH and also conveniently knowwhich of these classifications it is in, because we need to be able toknow what we are working via (ions or compounds) as soon as we are functioning withchemicals. We need to understand, for instance, that a bottle labeled "NaCN" (a salt) really containsno NaCN, quite Na+ and CN, or that a bottle labeled "HCN" (a weak acid) is principally HCNthrough a tiny amount of H+ and also CN likewise present. The distinction between just opening a bottle labeled "HCN" and one labeled "NaCN" could be your life, as HCN, or hydrogen cyanide, is a toxic gas, while CN, or cyanide ion, being an ion, isn"t a gas and also is only transfered in solid or solution create. Nonethemuch less, it is cyanide ion, CN, that is the killer. (It locks onto the Fe3+ in hemoglobin, causing less oxygen to get to your brain.) Cyanide is existing in both bottles, and also if it is transfered to your bloodstream either as CN or as HCN, it will certainly kill you.
Six Steps for Categorizing ElectrolytesSo just how execute we categorize compounds based upon their formula? One handy approach is outlined below:
|Step 1||Is it among the seven solid acids?||Step 2||Is it of the form Metal(OH)n? Then it"s a solid base.||Tip 3||Is it of the create Metal(X)n? Then it"s a salt.||Step 4||Does it"s formula begin through "H"? It"s probably a weak acid.||Step 5||Does it have actually a nitrogen atom? It may be a weak base.|
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|Tip 6||Namong those? Call it a nonelectrolyte.|