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Key People:Henri MoissanEdmond Frémy...(Sjust how more)Related Topics:Chemical elementHalogenFluorosis...(Sexactly how more)

Fluorine (F), many reactive chemical facet and also the lightest member of the halogen facets, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the regular table. Its chemical task can be attributed to its too much ability to attract electrons (it is the most electronegative element) and to the little size of its atoms.


Element Propertiesatomic numberatomic weightmelting pointboiling pointthickness (1 atm, 0 °C or 32 °F)oxidation stateselectron config.
9
18.998403163
−219.62 °C (−363.32 °F)
−188 °C (−306 °F)
1.696 g/litre (0.226 ounce/gallon)
−1
1s22s22p5

History

The fluorine-containing mineral fluorspar (or fluorite) was described in 1529 by the Gerguy physician and mineralogist Georgius Agricola. It appears most likely that crude hydrofluoric acid was initially prepared by an unknown English glassworker in 1720. In 1771 the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele derived hydrofluoric acid in an impure state by heating fluorspar with focused sulfuric acid in a glass retort, which was considerably corroded by the product; as a result, vessels made of metal were used in subsequent experiments through the substance. The practically anhydrous acid was all set in 1809, and 2 years later on the French physicist André-Marie Ampère said that it was a compound of hydrogen through an unwell-known element, analogous to chlorine, for which he said the name fluorine. Fluorspar was then known to be calcium fluoride.


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The isolation of fluorine was for a lengthy time one of the chief unfixed troubles in inorganic chemistry, and it was not until 1886 that the French chemist Henri Moissan prepared the aspect by electrolyzing a solution of potassium hydrogen fluoride in hydrogen fluoride. He got the 1906 Nobel Prize for Chemisattempt for isolating fluorine. The obstacle in dealing with the aspect and its toxic properties contributed to the slow-moving development in fluorine chemistry. Indeed, as much as the time of World War II the element appeared to be a laboratory curiosity. Then, but, the usage of uranium hexafluoride in the separation of uranium isotopes, in addition to the development of organic fluorine compounds of commercial prestige, made fluorine an commercial chemical of substantial usage.

Occurrence and also distribution

The fluorine-containing mineral fluorspar (fluorite, CaF2) has been used for centuries as a flux (cleansing agent) in various metallurgical processes. The name fluorspar is obtained from the Latin fluere, “to circulation.” The mineral consequently showed to be a resource of the aspect, which was appropriately called fluorine. The colourmuch less, transparent crystals of fluorspar exhilittle a bluish tinge as soon as illuminated, and also this building is appropriately known as fluorescence.


Fluorine is discovered in nature just in the create of its chemical compounds, other than for map quantities of the cost-free aspect in fluorspar that has actually been based on radiation from radium. Not a rare facet, it makes up around 0.065 percent of Earth’s crust. The major fluorine-containing minerals are (1) fluorspar, deposits of which occur in Illinois, Kentucky, Derbyshire, southerly Germany type of, the south of France, and Russia and also the chief resource of fluorine, (2) cryolite (Na3AlF6), chiefly from Greenland, (3) fluoroapatite (Ca53), extensively dispersed and containing variable amounts of fluorine and also chlorine, (4) topaz (Al2SiO42), the gemrock, and also (5) lepidolite, a mica and a component of pet bones and also teeth.

Physical and also chemical properties

At room temperature fluorine is a faintly yellow gas via an irritating odour. Inhalation of the gas is dangerous. Upon cooling fluorine becomes a yellow liquid. Tright here is just one steady isotope of the element, fluorine-19.

Because fluorine is the a lot of electronegative of the elements, atomic groupings rich in fluorine are regularly negatively charged. Methyl iodide (CH3I) and also trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I) have various charge distributions as displayed in the following formulas, in which the Greek symbol δ suggests a partial charge:

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The initially ionization power of fluorine is incredibly high (402 kilocalories per mole), giving a traditional warmth development for the F+ cation of 420 kilocalories per mole.

The tiny size of the fluorine atom renders it possible to load a reasonably large number of fluorine atoms or ions roughly a given coordination centre (main atom) wbelow it develops many steady complexes—for instance, hexafluorosilicate (SiF6)2− and hexafluoroaluminate (AlF6)3−. Fluorine is the a lot of powertotally oxidizing facet. No other substance, therefore, is able to oxidize the fluoride anion to the free facet, and also hence the aspect is not discovered in the free state in nature. For more than 150 years, all chemical approaches had failed to develop the aspect, success having been completed only by the usage of electrolytic approaches. However before, in 1986 American chemist Karl O. Christe reported the first chemical preparation of fluorine, wright here “chemical preparation” indicates an approach that does not use methods such as electrolysis, photolysis, and discharge or use fluorine itself in the synthesis of any of the beginning materials. He supplied K2MnF6 and also antimony pentafluoride (SbF5), both of which can be easily prepared from HF options.

The high oxidizing power of fluorine enables the element to create the greatest oxidation numbers feasible in other elements, and many high oxidation state fluorides of aspects are well-known for which there are no various other matching halides—e.g., silver difluoride (AgF2), cobalt trifluoride (CoF3), rhenium heptafluoride (ReF7), bromine pentafluoride (BrF5), and iodine heptafluoride (IF7).

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Fluorine (F2), composed of 2 fluorine atoms, combines with all various other facets except helium and neon to create ionic or covalent fluorides. Some metals, such as nickel, are quickly extended by a fluoride layer, which prevents even more strike of the metal by the facet. Certain dry metals, such as mild steel, copper, aluminum, or Monel (a 66 percent nickel, 31.5 percent copper alloy), are not attacked by fluorine at ordinary temperatures. For occupational through fluorine at temperatures as much as 600 °C (1,100 °F), Monel is suitable; sintered alumina is resistant up to 700 °C (1,300 °F). When lubricants are required, fluorocarbon oils are a lot of suitable. Fluorine reacts violently via organic matter (such as rubber, wood, and also cloth), and also managed fluorination of organic compounds by the action of elepsychological fluorine is only possible if special precautions are taken.