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What necessary discovery did Griffith make in his pneumonia experiments on mice?
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He found that tright here was a transformation in which one strain of bacteria (a harmmuch less strain) was somejust how readjusted permanently into another (the disease causing strain). He hypothesized that the transdeveloping element could be a gene because the capacity to cause condition ws inherited by the transcreated bacteria's offspring.
Exactly what did Griffith execute to the mice in the experiment where he learned about transformation?He injected mice through his heat-killed, disease-bring about bacteria (the heated ones that killed the bacteria) with live, harmless ones. (see 288) So, the harmmuch less bacteria had been transdeveloped right into disease-causing genes.
What did Aextremely and also his colleagues recognize caused the transformation of harmless bacteria right into illness resulting in bacteria?They found that nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits the hereditary indevelopment from one generation of an organism to the following.
What is a bacteriophage?It is a virus that infects and also kills bacteria. (It suggests "bacteria eater".)
Of what are bacteriophage made?They're made of a DNA or RNA core and also a protein coat.
What happens when a bacteriophage enters a bacterium?It attaches to the surconfront of the cell and inject its viral hereditary indevelopment into the cell. These viral genes produce many brand-new bacteriopheras that progressively damage the bacterium. When that cell splits, numerous new viroffers are released.
What were Hershey and Chase trying to determine in their experiments?They wanted to know whether the protein coat or the DNA core of the virus gotten in the infected cell; this would certainly help them identify whether genes were made up protein or of DNA.
What approach did Hershey and Chase usage to study the viruses in their experiments?They provided radioactive isotopes of phosphorus-32 and also sulfur-35 as markers so they could trace the proteins and also DNA to view what they were doing to the cell.
Why were phosphorus-32 and also sulfur-35 perfect for what Hershey & Chase were investigating in their experiments?They were perfect because proteins contain virtually no phosphorus and also DNA consists of no sulfur, so the radioenergetic isotopes would certainly show up in the cells if the phosphorus-32 or sulfur-35 showed up. If sulfur-35 verified up in the bacteria, it supposed the viruses' protein had been injected into the bacteria; if the phosphorus-32 was uncovered in the bacteria, the DNA had actually been injected right into the bacteria.
What conclusion did Hershey & Chase make concerning the hereditary material that remained in bacteriophage?They concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA, NOT protein.
What 3 things carry out genes do that interested scientists?1) genes had actually to lug information from 1 generation to the next; 2) they put that indevelopment to occupational by determining the heritable features of organisms; 3) genes had to be easily replicated because every one of a cell's hereditary indevelopment is replicated every time a cell divides.
What are nucleotides?They are the monomers of nucleic acids comprised of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and also a nitrogenous base (see 291).
What are the 4 kinds of nitrogenous bases in DNA?1) adenine & 2) guanine (both are purines); 3) cytosine and also 4) thymine (pyrimidines).
What is the big distinction between the structure of purines and also pyrimidines?Purines have 2 rings in their structure (pg. 291); pyrimidines have one ring (image on 291).
What is the "backbone" of a DNA chain?Sugar and also phosphate are the backbone of a DNA chain.
What do Chargaff's Rules say?In any sample of DNA, the percentperiods of guanine (G) & cytosine (C) bases were nearly equal; the exact same was true of the percentages of adenine (A) and also thymine (T). So, = and also =
What strategy did Rosalind Franklin use in her study of DNA?She offered X-ray diffraction, aiming a powerful X-ray beam at concentrated DNA samples and taped the scattering pattern of the S-rays on film.
What vital clues re: DNA arose from Franklin's work?1) The X-shaped pattern shows that the strands in DNA are twisted about each other in a shape recognized as a helix; 2) the angle of the X suggested tright here are 2 strands in the structure; 3) the nitrogenous baes are near the center of molecule.
What breakvia did Watson & Crick make?They made a design of DNA reflecting a double helix, in which 2 strands were wound approximately each other. They also uncovered that hydrogen bonds might form between certain nitrogenous bases and also provide enough pressure to hold the 2 strands together.

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What is "base pairing"?Watkid & Crick discovered that For eexceptionally adenine in a double-stranded DNA molecule, tright here had actually to be exacly one thymine molecule; for each cytosine molecule, tbelow was one guanine molecule.
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