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Early in the morning on Sunday, August 13, 1961, barbed wire fences went up anywhere the boundary between East and also West Berlin.<1> For the following twenty eight years, Berliners would certainly remain on whichever before side of the Wall surface they were the night prior to, tearing apart family members, friends, and also loved ones for what seemingly was an eternity. The Berlin Wall surface ended up being the the majority of iconic picture of Cold War divisions and stood for a physical manifestation of Winston Churchill’s 1945 “Iron Curtain” speech. For the ordinary citizen that wanted to flee to the West, no explacountry might have justified the Wall’s building and construction. However before, this event was a reflection of the tense international device at the time and also an effort to settle some of the concerns. Any conversation of the topic have to think about both worldwide occasions in the time of the Cold War and also domestic national politics. This paper will synthedimension these two aspects in studying the origins of the Berlin Wall surface, adhering to a brief narrative of the condition of postbattle Germany type of and also a historiographical analysis. Ultimately, this paper will argue that the building of the Berlin Wall was a product of the refugee crisis, difficulties to the Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union (USSR)’s management and also the USSR’s failed diplomacy through the West.

Lenin famously reflected that, “whoever possesses Berlin possesses Germany type of, and also whoever before controls Germany controls Europe.”<2> After the war, European countries were anxious to make sure Germany type of would never threaten their countries aget, and divided Germany kind of among the Allied victors for supervision appropriately. Germany type of and also Berlin were split right into 4 sectors and also it was agreed that they would be collectively managed by the Joint Allied Control Council.<3> In 1949, the occupation areas under the UK (UK), the United States (US) and also France unified to form Trizonia, and organized cost-free elections under their recently produced autonomous state. Konrad Adenauer was chosen as the initially Chancellor for the Federal Republic of Germany type of (FRG) in May 1949. In the other fifty percent of Germany kind of, Wchange Ulbricht, the Chairmale of the Socialist Unity Party (SED) declared the creation of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). In each of their sectors, they pursued plans and financial models comparable to the occupying powers. This supposed that Adenauer followed US President Dwight Eisenhower and later on John F. Kennedy’s leadership, while Ulbricht complied with USSR Chairguy Josef Stalin and also later on Nikita Khrushchev’s policies. This was the political alignment to which all future events were later constructed upon.

A quick historiographical testimonial will certainly permit for a far better expertise on the approach this paper will take. The opening of the Soviet archives in 1991 has actually produced the majority of of the scholarship on the topic of the Wall’s building and construction.<4> While some limited traditionalist and also revisionist literary works exists, it is this post-revisionist scholarship which has been most significant in shaping the understanding of this topic. This scholarship can be additionally classified right into three ideologies. The initially strategy addresses the Wall’s building as a product of superpower diplomacy. Scholars concentrating on this perspective encompass Marc Trachtenberg,<5> John Lewis Gaddis,<6> and Hope Harrison,<7> whose functions concentprice on the centrality of Berlin in the multilateral connections of the USA, the Soviet Union, the FRG and the GDR.<8> The second strategy concentrates on the affect that domestic national politics have actually in the actions and also priorities of human being leaders. Robert Slusser<9> and Honoré M. Catudal<10> debated the obstacles each leader faced: Eisenhower with the U-2 occurrence, Kennedy with the Bay of Pigs incident, Ulbricht with the refugee exodus, and Khrushchev through recurring difficulties to his leadership.<11> The 3rd strategy is related to the second and discusses the impact of the relationships that these leaders had actually through each other. Scholars such as Patrick Major,<12> and also Michael Beschloss<13> remark on the initial overbearing influence Khrushchev had actually on Kennedy, the relatively amicable friendship of Mao and also Ulbricht, and specifically with the new archival proof, the aggressive attitude of Ulbricht towards Khrushchev.<14> However, this paper does not assert that each technique is mutually exclusive of each other, and will synthesize facets of each perspective to determine the the majority of detailed conclusion.

The Wall’s building was largely justified by the mass refugee exodus developing from the GDR by means of Berlin. Fleeing from the oppressive routine which had actually harsh collectivization quotas, continuous shortages of day-to-day essentials, a dramatically lower conventional of living, and also which separated households and also relatives, the citizens of the GDR could discover some respite in escaping to the FRG.<15> Between 1945 and 1961, 3.5 million East Germans, or one out of eexceptionally six civilization,<16> had actually fbrought about the West, bring about the population to fall from 19.1 million to 17.1 million despite a birth excess.<17> This exodus aplaced to about thirty times the amount of people who fled the Third Reich, and was termed by the GDR and also USSR leadership as “Republikflucht” or “trip from the Republic.”<18> After tighter controls were implemented to prevent this loss, even more civilization fled through Berlin as Western accessibility throughout the city was guaranteed by the Quadripartite Commitment of 1944.<19> By the end of 1958, over ninety percent of refugees were making use of this “loophole.”<20> Ulbricht’s statement at a press conference in June 15, 1961 that “no one has any intention of erecting a wall” did the oppowebsite impact of calming the population.<21> Instead, it triggered the Torschlußpanik,<22> provoking waves of eight to nine thousand also flights a week till the Wall was constructed. The Republikflucht necessitated a response because it endangered the stability of the GDR economically, the vicapacity of the GDR as a political unit, and also the defense of the entire communist bloc.

The economic expenses of the refugee crisis alone could have actually justified the construction of the Wall surface. Even as beforehand as 1953, bad economic instances were bring about over 100,000 East Germans to flee.<23> The 1953 rebellion in the GDR motivated Ulbricht and also the USSR to look at the situation even more critically, which contained proposing enhancing financial incentives to try to gain the intelligentsia to stay. However before, this produced what historian Patrick Major calls an “economic catch-22”: in order to acquire people to continue to be, the GDR required to get money, in order to acquire the money, the GDR needed the people to continue to be in order to store creating.<24> In 1961, Ulbricht asserted that the West Berlin loophole was costing the GDR “1,000 million marks annually, and the kidnapping of our citizens, the pirating of individuals…expenses another 2,500 million marks.”<25> In a meeting with Ulbricht in November 1960, Khrushchev declared that the USSR would certainly be willing to administer the GDR through all the metal it necessary for the production of goods.<26> However, optimal USSR officials were beginning to fear that the GDR was coming to be also substantial of an economic burden.<27>

The economic burden was straining the vicapability of the GDR as a political unit to assert manage over its own civilization. In spite of many type of attempts at rectifying the instance, refugees were still leaving.<28> The loss of intelligentsia stood for not just an economic tragedy, yet likewise a tragedy to the overall advance of the society. In specific, the enormous loss of medical professionals and also experts made it tough for the sick to recoup so that they might go back to work, and also the lack of engineers and also expert employees made it impossible to development in the technical and also specialized building and construction sectors.<29> Amongst the intelligentsia, fifty percent cited political reasons for leaving, a 3rd for career associated factors, and less than a quarter for family-associated and apolitical excuses.<30> This stood for a severe obstacle to the GDR as it came to be clear that both pull and also press components existed.<31> Realizing that these factors were extremely tough to respond to, Ulbricht started to unilaterally introduce constraints on take a trip to proccasion world from leaving. On December 11, 1957, the East Germale passport regulation was introduced which reduced the as a whole number of refugees.<32> In September 1960, the GDR presented identity cards which would certainly only enable residents of Berlin and also Allied officials accessibility to the city, and attempted to offer Berlin a sepaprice legal status.<33> This all culminated in the Dowling occurrence of September 1960, when East Berlin officials refsupplied enattempt to the US ambassador to the FRG without correct GDR papers.<34> Regardless of all this, the FRG still refprovided to acunderstanding the GDR’s existence, and the reputation of the GDR as a solid communist member was fchanging.<35>

Finally, the refugee crisis confirmed to be a protection danger to the communist bloc. Even though reports from Ulbricht on the level of subversive task occurring have a propensity to exaggerate, there was some underlying reality to his clintends.<36> He suggested that West Berlin was being used as a base by the “imperialists” to conduct spying missions in the Soviet bloc.<37> In specific, he referenced the West Berlin refugee centres as a area wbelow the West could recruit spies, get knowledge straight, and discover out if tbelow were any kind of GDR counterespionage task was developing.<38> Noticing this trouble, Ulbricht demanded a solution from Khrushchev to seal this security hazard.<39>

Khrushchev faced obstacles to his leadership and plans domestically, from Ulbricht, and also from China, which are all important components to understanding why he provided consent to Ulbricht to construct a wall surface. Khrushchev himself recognized that West Berlin was “a bone stuck in our throat,” that disrupted Soviet hegemony in the eastern bloc.<40> By the moment the Wall was developed, Khrushchev had actually consolidated his power in the USSR and was getting confidence in his power to execute somepoint around it.<41> He had excellent reason to be confident as the USSR has actually made substantial advancements in the space race and was growing its global prestige. Sputnik was properly launched as the initially fabricated satellite in area in 1957, Yuri Gagarin ended up being the first huguy in room in 1961, and also later on that year, Ghermale Titov ended up being the first humale to orbit the Planet multiple times.<42> With Kennedy’s election, Khrushchev was hopeful that he discovered an extra willing partner to seek his plan of calm covisibility. However before, these challenges encountering his management neighboring the problem of Berlin initially had to be encountered.

The battle for the leadership of the USSR after Stalin’s death in March 1953 and the events following were important in shaping Khrushchev’s commitment to the GDR. During the GDR rebellion later that year, Soviet leader Lavrentiy Beria expressed his exasperation at the routine at Pankow and argued liquidating the GDR.<43> This was instantly denounced, which committed Moscow to aid the GDR as soon as required later on.<44> Khrushchev cited this event in a conversation with Ulbricht in late 1960 as factor to consistently be receptive to GDR requests for assistance.<45> If the GDR acted unilaterally, the USSR was compelled to assistance him or else seem weak regarding not being able to manage a member of their bloc.<46> Additionally, after placing down an coup versus him in June 1957 and bolstered by technical prestige, Khrushchev’s confidence permitted him to announce his first ultimatum to the West in November 1958.<47> This ultimatum was an effort at readdressing the impressive German question, by re-evaluating the standing of the four occupying powers of the nation. In pursuant of his plan of serene copresence, he proposed that the standing of Berlin end up being a “cost-free city.”<48> If not accepted, Khrushchev would certainly authorize a separate peace treaty with the GDR, passing on the civil liberties of the city to Ulbricht.<49> Khrushchev needed to show up tough so that he could be taken seriously by the West, and also to satisfy Ulbricht’s wishes for a harsh stance to settle the Berlin trouble.

The most vocal obstacle for Khrushchev to act in response to the refugee crisis was from Ulbricht. Historian Hope Harriboy puts it best: “Khrushchev struggled to put the East Gerguy genie he had created earlier right into the bottle.”<50> Since the FRG joined NATO and the announcement of the Hallstein Doctrine in 1955, Ulbricht lobbied for a drastic response by the communist bloc to stand up in protest.<51> In spite of Ulbricht’s greatest convictions that a Wall surface had actually to be built, he can not perform so without Khrushchev’s approval.<52> Due to the fact that the 1953 rebellion, Ulbricht had been investigating the possibility of creating a Wall to speak the Republikflucht, but was not able to make any type of headmeans because of Khrushchev’s preoccupation via his peaceful covisibility policy.<53> Khrushchev, who was much even more concentrated around the worldwide consequences of an Allied retaliation against the building of the wall, was hesitant to provide any plan which could exacerbate global tensions.<54> However, assures that it would not kept coming from Ulbricht, through the strongest reassurances in mid-1961. Senator William Fulbright<55> argued in a television interview on July 25, 1961 that the East Germans might close the border without conceivably violating any kind of treaty.<56> This gave Ulbricht through even more ammunition to press Khrushchev into building the Wall. After 2 and also a half years of negotiations, Khrushchev lastly gave the green light to proceed. He thought that the Allies would certainly not retaliate over Berlin, partly as an outcome of Ulbricht’s constant assurances.<57> Starting from January 1961, Ulbricht had actually badgered Khrushchev around these plans at leastern two or 3 times a month.<58> Regardmuch less, he had been collecting barbed wire and concrete covertly in March 1961, and beginning in May, he had transferred some of GDR’s riot police to Berlin.<59> Khrushchev ultimately became encouraged enough that Ulbricht would certainly take the leastern aggressive course of activity, and also gave right into Ulbricht’s needs around building a Wall surface. In doing so, he was still firm around retaining his influence over Ulbricht. After he provided his verbal consent out on August 1, Ulbricht said, “Thanks, Comrade Khrushchev. Without your aid we might not resolve this destructive difficulty,”<60> to which Khrushchev famously replied, “But not one millimetre better.”<61> As the refugee instance worsened and also as will be presented, the Sino-Soviet break-up deepened, Khrushchev evidently came to be even more receptive to Ulbricht’s pressure.

The Sino-Soviet split gave Ulbricht with higher leverage as soon as advocating for the Wall surface, and also additionally compelled Khrushchev to take decisive activity in regards to Berlin.<62> Due to the fact that Khrushchev’s Secret Speech in February 1956, Mao became significantly agitated with his ally’s calls for calm copresence with his enemies and denouncement of the cult of personality.<63> In light of this speech, Mao and Ulbricht thrived closer for a number of reasons. Firstly, the leaders both ruled by the very same personality cult which Khrushchev denounced, and felt as if they were personally under attack.<64> Secondly, both felt as if the West had actually encroached on their territory unjustly: West Berlin in the GDR and also Hong Kong in China.<65> They both endured from refugee dilemmas as an outcome.<66> Finally, both pertained to themselves as frontiers of the communist bloc, and also were appalled that the geographically defended USSR was encouraging them to reconcile with the foe that intimidated their border day-to-day.<67> Even though Ulbricht depfinished heavily on Soviet assistance and therefore can not openly assistance Mao, Khrushchev noticed that this relationship intimidated his leadership of the bloc.<68> In 1961 as soon as the Sino-Soviet separation was beginning, Khrushchev began to listen even more carefully to what Ulbricht was asking for as he required the assistance of a strong communist state.<69> In doing so, Ulbricht had better leverage in his requests as he was playing off the alliance.<70> Parallel to these events was the Taiwan Straits crisis, wbelow China struck the islands of Quemoy and Matsu a lot to the disdain of Khrushchev.<71> This endangered Khrushchev’s attempts for peace, and also he was desperate to make sure that Ulbricht did not undertake any type of irrational unilateral activity favor Mao. These pressures helps to define why Khrushchev felt compelled to listen to Ulbricht’s calls for assistance, as he did not desire to be the Soviet leader that shed the influence of the communist bloc to China.<72> Even though Ulbricht wanted a quick and aggressive solution, Khrushchev proceeded cautiously.

The crisis in Berlin had actually the potential to create another world battle, so it was crucial that the superpowers at leastern try to deal with the concern diplomatically.<73> However, the question of what to do with Germany and also Berlin came to be even more crucial because the conclusion of WWII. The unification of Bizonia in 1947, and also later on Trizonia in 1949, posed a severe army and economic threat to the USSR and the GDR.<74> This was compounded by the arrival of the Deutschmark in 1949, to which Stalin hastily responded via the Berlin Blockade.<75> Stalin’s death in 1953 seemed to be the perfect chance to restart negotiations, yet, the 1955 inclusion of the FRG in NATO endangered this possibility.<76> The GDR put more press on the USSR than ever to soptimal the rearming of its foe neighbour.<77> Given this deep-rooted historic conmessage, it becomes clearer to see that the chance of finding a quick relaxed solution to the Berlin crisis was slim. In its location, the Wall became a much more viable solution.

Upcollection at the stalemate over the German trouble, Khrushchev’s ultimatum over Berlin succeeded in regards that it was able to rebegin talks via the US.<78> Between 1955 and 1958, Khrushchev had actually withdrawn about 2.3 million Soviet pressures from postbattle populated land also and also permitted for the neutrality of Finland and also Austria to occur.<79> However before, he was not able to properly win the attention of Eisenhower and also get credit for these actions, and the ultimatum was intfinished to rebegin dialogue.<80> The Geneva summit emerged in the time of the summer of 1959 and also actually surrendered considerable gains to the USSR as the West agreed to take into consideration recognizing the GDR.<81> However, Khrushchev’s tranquility setup was eventually rejected.<82> In addition, Khrushchev was additionally able to secure a visit to the US in the fall, which the 2 sides regarded as a positive suffer.<83> This was an important symbolic experience, as he would certainly be the first USSR head of state to perform this. After a effective trip via exceptional honours, he returned ago to the USSR through the “heart of Camp David.”<84> In truth, Khrushchev unilaterally reduced Soviet equipped pressures by 1.2 million males soon after returning as he was optimistic that even more progress would be made on the worry of Berlin.<85> They had actually agreed to meet aget in Paris in May 1960, but this short-lived meeting via Eisenhower decisively adjusted Khrushchev’s approach to the German problem.

Khrushchev had actually high hopes for success at the Paris meeting in May 1960, however a variety of circumstantial concerns reduced fixing the Berlin worry to a stalemate. A meeting of Western allies and also ministers in late 1959 revealed that there were sharp divisions as to how to est technique the topic.<86> This department foreshadowed a very tough conference, also before the U-2 incident.<87> The USSR was efficiently able to shoot dvery own an Amerihave the right to spy plane in May 1960, a lot to the embarrassment of the US. Khrushchev, still hoping that peaceful copresence was feasible, did not initially believe that Eisenhower personally authorize this incident.<88> However before, Eisenhower came out a few days later and not just admitted to ordering the mission, but he also publicly justified the use of espionage.<89> Khrushchev confronted harsh criticism within his communist bloc for this incident, as China criticized his connections with America to be tantamount to betrayal of the communist device.<90> At home, his leadership was doubted behind closed doors for initiating the troop reductions once the U-2 event plainly depicted that tbelow was no reduction of tensions in between the 2 sides.<91> Understandably, Khrushchev took a really hostile stance at the Paris Summit and also left after being unable to get an apology from Eisenhower.<92> Diplomatic relations in between the US and USSR were icy throughout the remainder of the year, yet Khrushchev hoped they would certainly be assuaged by Kennedy’s inauguration in January 1961.

Even though Khrushchev confronted harsh objections at house and obtained desperate prental fees for help from Ulbricht, he remained hopeful that dialogue with Kennedy could retun much better results. When the 2 leaders met in Vienna in June 1961, it ended up being apparent yet that the topic of Berlin was both forethe majority of on their minds.<93> Despite that the tone of the as a whole conference was cordial sufficient, as soon as Kennedy arrived back the US, he announced a huge boost in defense spfinishing and a dispatch of added US troops to Europe.<94> This was in response to another ultimatum Khrushchev left him, and Ulbricht was at this allude increasingly agitated for Khrushchev to allow him to carry out something concrete. It is important to note that Khrushchev’s regular plans for serene copresence were not in conflict of building a Wall surface. Once it ended up being clear to him that the Wall’s building would certainly not be met through equipped resistance, harsh financial or diplomatic effects, he agreed that the Wall can proceed. The last event which empowered Khrushchev to act, alongside the Fulbideal statement, was a speech Kennedy provided on July 25, 1961. Kennedy reaffirmed his commitment to West Berlin, however did not mention residential East Berlin actions which would not influence the West as cause for retaliation.<95> Khrushchev proceeded through this as cautiously as feasible, initially just permitting Ulbricht to put up a temporary barbed wire barricade to test how the West would certainly act.<96> The Wall surface ended up being a fait accompli as the West did not disclose any kind of indication of difficult the brand-new standing quo. Kennedy remarked after its building, “It’s not a very nice solution, but a wall surface is hell of a lot better than a war.”<97>

The definition of the beginnings of the Wall is precisely a reflection of these situations. The Republikflucht, instability Khrushchev challenged within the communist bloc, and also failed attempts at calm solution all could have resulted in nuclear Armageddon. Any misinteraction performed by both sides might have actually resulted in a situation equivalent to the Cuban Missile Dilemma a year later on. Instead, the Wall represented an attempt between the West and also East at co-procedure over the heated Gerguy Question, and when that failed, an effort to rectify the case unilaterally. It was additionally an example of how the agendas of superpowers in keeping their prestige or place frequently had actually harsh results for the simple citizens. As chronicler Patrick Major puts it aptly, “13 August 1961 was to go down as the darkest day of Germany’s Cold War.”<98>

Given the Republikflucht, challenges to Khrushchev’s leadership and failed diplomacy via the West, building a Wall surface was conceivably a logical solution to these problems. However before, it is important to remember that it was not an inescapable outcome, yet a rational conclusion to the dilemmas in the circumstances. In a state wright here elections are expected to just be a rubber-stamp approval of the party’s activities, the citizen voting via their feet was an unacceptable ballot cast which demanded an answer. This response was the Berlin Wall.


Barket, Elisabeth. “The Berlin Situation 1958-1962.”Internationwide Affairs. no. 1 (1963): 59-73. (accessed March 15, 2014).

Bavendamm, Gundula. Like a Tinderbox: The Berlin Situation and also the Construction of the Wall. Berlin: Berlin Story Verlag, 2011.

Beschloss, Michael R. The Situation Years: Kennedy and also Khrushchev, 1960-1963. New York: Edward Bulingame Books, 1991.

Catudal, Honoré. M. Kennedy and also the Berlin Wall surface Crisis: A Case Study in U.S. Decision Making. Berlin: Berlin-Verlag, 1980.

“East Germale Ministry of State Security, ‘New Methods of Operation of Western Secret Services"” November, 1958, History and also Public Policy Program Digital Archive, BStU, ZA, MfS-HA IX Nr. 4350, pp. 341-360. Translated by Paul Maddrell. Names redacted in accordance through the Gerguy Law on State Security Records.

Fulbrook, Mary. History of Germany kind of 1918-2000: The Divided Nation, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2002.

Garthoff, Raymond L. “34.Berlin 1961: The Record Corrected .” Foreign Policy. no. 3 (1991): 142-156. (accessed March 17, 2014).

Gray, William Glenn. Germany’s Cold War: The Global Campaign to Isolate East Germany type of, 1949-1969. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Harrison, Hope M. Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East Germale Relations 1953-1961. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Harrichild, Hope M. Ulbricht and the Concrete “Rose”: New Archival Evidence on the Dynamics of Soviet-East Germale Relations and also the Berlin Crisis, 1958-1961. Washington, D.C.: Cold War Internationwide History Project, Woodrow Wilson Internationwide Center for Scholars, 1993.

Hertle, Hans-Hermann. The Berlin Wall surface Story: Biography of a Monument. Berlin: Ch.Links Verlag, 2011.

Kempe, Frederick. Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Many Dangerous Place on Earth. New York: Berkley Pub Group, 2012.

Klein, David, and James S. Sutterlin. Berlin: From Symbol of Confrontation to Keystamong Stability. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989.

“Mao Zedong, Rundown for a Speech on the Internationwide Situation” December, 1959, History and also Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao , v. 8 (Beijing, 1993), pp. 599-602; translation from the Chinese by David Wolff. Publiburned in CWIHP Working Paper No. 30.

Major, Patrick. Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany type of and also the Frontiers of Power. New York: Oxford College Press, 2009.

McAdams, A. James. East Germany and Détente: Building authority after the wall. New York: Cambridge College Press, 1985.

Newguy, Kitty. Macmillan, Khrushchev and the Berlin Dilemma 1958-1960. New York: Routledge, 2007.

“Record of Meeting of Comrade N.S. Khrushchev with Comrade W. Ulbricht” November 30, 1960, History and also Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Russian Minisattempt of Foregime Affairs Archives, Fond 0742, Opis 6, Por 4, Papka 43. Publiburned in CWIHP Working Paper No. 5, “Ulbricht and also the Concrete ‘Rose."” Translated for CWIHP by Hope Harrikid.

Shick, James M. The Berlin Crisis, 1958-1962. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971.

Smyser, W.R. From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle Over Germany. Houndsmills, Hampshire: Macmillan Press, 1999.

Smyser, W.R. Kennedy and also the Berlin Wall: “A hell of a lot much better than a war”. Toronto: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2009.

Trachtenberg, Marc. A Constructed Peace: the Making of the European Settlement. Princeton: Princeton College Press, 1999.

Williamboy, Richard D. First steps toward détente: Amerideserve to diplomacy in the Berlin crisis, 1958-1963. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.


<1> A. James McAdams, East Germany type of and also Détente: Building authority after the wall, (New York: Cambridge College Press, 1985), 9.

<2> Frederick Kempe, Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth, (New York: Berkley Pub Group, 2012), xiii.

<3> Hans-Hermann Hertle, The Berlin Wall surface Story: Biography of a Monument, (Berlin: Ch.Links Verlag, 2011), 29.

<4> Richard D. Williamboy, First steps towards détente: Amerideserve to diplomacy in the Berlin crisis, 1958-1963, (Lanham, Md: Lexington Books, 2012), xvii.

<5> The specific job-related referenced right here is A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945-1963.

<6> The specific functions referenced below are We Now Know: Rereasoning Cold War History and Russia, the Soviet Union and the United States: An Interpretive History.

<7> The specific functions referenced right here are Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East Gerguy Relations 1953-1961 and Ulbricht and also the Concrete “Rose”: New Archival Evidence on the Dynamics of Soviet-East Germale Relations and also the Berlin Situation, 1958-1961.

<8> For more scholarship using this approach, please watch Mary Fulbrook’s History of Germany 1918-2000: The Divided Nation, 2nd Edition, and also Gundula Bavendamm’s Like a Tinderbox: The Berlin Crisis and also the Construction of the Wall.

<9> The particular work-related referenced here is Berlin Dilemma of 1961: Soviet-Amerideserve to relationships and the Struggle for Power in the Kremlin, June-November 1961.

<10> The particular occupational referenced right here is Kennedy and also the Berlin Wall surface Crisis: A Case Study in U.S. Decision Making. While this book has actually a political science bias, it is helpful in its historic content for knowledge the years coming before the building and construction of the wall.

<11> These difficulties describe both domestically through regards to his leadership by Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich and also Beria, but likewise difficulties to his leadership of the communist bloc by China. For more scholarship utilizing this technique, please check out James Richter’s Khrushchev’s Double Bind: International Pressure and Domestic Coalition Politics, and also Renata Fritsch-Bournazel’s Confronting the Gerguy Question: Germans on the East-West Divide.

<12> The particular job-related referenced here is Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power. Another work-related by him which is of interemainder is his “Going West: The Open Border and the Problems of Republikflucht” write-up.

<13> The certain work referenced below is The Situation Years: Kennedy and Khrushchev, 1960-1963.

<14> For even more scholarship utilizing this approach, please check out Frank A. Mayer’s Adenauer and Kennedy: A Study in German-Amerihave the right to Relations, 1961-1963, Kitty Newman’s Macmillan, Khrushchev and the Berlin Crisis 1958-1960, and W.R. Smyser’s From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle Over Germany.

<15> Patrick Major, Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 50, 52, 79, 82.

<16> Kempe, Berlin 1961, xix.

<17> Hertle, The Berlin Wall Story, 32.

<18> Major, Behind the Berlin, 56.

<19> This, alongside some travel and tourists agreements, allowed East Berliners to travel to West Berliners. From there, they could take a trip to the FRG and also never rerevolve. Other GDR citizens can carry out the same with entering East Berlin. Kitty Newmale, Macmillan, Khrushchev and the Berlin Crisis 1958-1960, (New York: Routledge, 2007), 4.

<20> Hope M. Harrikid, Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East Gerguy Relations 1953-1961, (Princeton: Princeton College Press, 2003), 99.

<21> Major, Behind the Berlin, 107-108.

<22> Translated from Gerguy, Torschlußpanik describes “panic from are afraid that the escape hatch would be closed.” Honoré M. Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall surface Crisis: A Case Study in U.S. Decision Making, (Berlin: Berlin-Verlag, 1980), 204.

<23> W.R. Smyser, From Yalta to Berlin: The Cold War Struggle Over Germany, (Houndsmills, Hampshire: Macmillan Press, 1999), 120.

<24> Major, Behind the Berlin, 46.

<25> Catudal, Kennedy and also the Berlin, 165.

<26> “Record of Meeting of Comrade N.S. Khrushchev with Comrade W. Ulbricht” November 30, 1960, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archives, Fond 0742, Opis 6, Por 4, Papka 43. Publiburned in CWIHP Working Paper No. 5, “Ulbricht and also the Concrete ‘Rose."” Trans. Hope Harrichild.

<27> Major, Behind the Berlin, 49.

<28> Harrikid, Driving the Soviets, 99.

<29> Major, Behind the Berlin, 78-79.

<30> Ibid, 82.

<31> Ibid, 75.

<32> Harrikid, Driving the Soviets, 99.

<33> James M. Shick, The Berlin Dilemma, 1958-1962, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971), 130.

<34> Harrichild, Driving the Soviets, 145.

<35> W.R. Smyser, Kennedy and also the Berlin Wall: “A hell of a lot better than a war”, (Toronto: Rowmale and also Littlefield Publishers, 2009), 55.

<36> Shick, The Berlin Dilemma, 13.

<37> David Klein, and also James S. Sutterlin, Berlin: From Symbol of Confrontation to Keystone of Stability, (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989), 56.

<38> Gundula Bavendamm, Like a Tinderbox: The Berlin Situation and also the Construction of the Wall, (Berlin: Berlin Story Verlag, 2011), 48; An testimonial from the Stasi in November 1958 likewise listed the ramping up of espionage task in Berlin. “East German Ministry of State Security, ‘New Methods of Operation of Western Secret Services"” November 1958, History and also Public Policy Program Digital Archive, BStU, ZA, MfS-HA IX Nr. 4350, pp. 341-360. Trans. Paul Maddrell.

<39> Elisabeth Barket, “The Berlin Dilemma 1958-1962,”Internationwide Affairs, 39, no. 1 (1963): 60, (accessed March 15, 2014)

<40> Raymond L. Garthoff, “Berlin 1961: The Record Corrected ,” Foregime Policy, 84, no. 3 (1991): 143, (accessed March 17, 2014).

<41> Kempe, Berlin 1961, 22.

<42> Barket, “The Berlin Crisis,” 60. and Smyser, Kennedy and also the Berlin, 98.

<43> Smyser, From Yalta to, 121.

<44> Ibid, 122.

<45> “Record of Meeting,” November 30, 1960.

<46> Smyser, Kennedy and also the Berlin, 93.

<47> Marc Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace: the Making of the European Settlement, (Princeton: Princeton College Press, 1999), 252.

<48> Hertle, The Berlin Wall surface Story, 36.

<49> Bavendamm, Like a Tinderbox, 16.

<50> Harrison, Driving the Soviets, 139.

<51> Smyser, From Yalta to, 131.

<52> Michael R. Beschloss, The Crisis Years: Kennedy and Khrushchev, 1960-1963, (New York: Edward Bulingame Books, 1991), 267.

<53> Smyser, From Yalta to, 120.

<54> Newguy, Macmillan, Khrushchev, 2.

<55> He was likewise the Chairguy of the Senate Fopower Relations Committee.Catudal, Kennedy and also the Berlin, 201.

<56> Ibid, 201.

<57> Ibid, 111.

<58> Beschloss, The Dilemma Years, 266.

<59> Major, Behind the Berlin, 109.

<60> Beschloss, The Dilemma Years, 266.

<61> Ibid, 266.

<62> Harrichild, Driving the Soviets, 165.

<63> “Mao Zedong, Overview for a Speech on the Internationwide Situation” December, 1959, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao , v. 8 (Beijing, 1993), pp. 599-602; trans. David Wolff.

<64> Harrikid, Driving the Soviets, 80.

<65> Ibid, 79.

<66> Ibid, 79.

<67> Ibid, 142.

<68> Ibid, 80.

<69> McAdams, East Germany type of and, 25.

<70> Harrikid, Ulbricht and the, 5.

<71> Shick, The Berlin Crisis, 7.

<72> Harriboy, Driving the Soviets, 3.

<73> Bavendamm, Like a Tinderbox, 24.

<74> Mary Fulbrook, History of Germany type of 1918-2000: The Divided Nation, 2nd Edition, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2002), 128, 133.

<75> Major, Behind the Berlin, 28.

<76> William Glenn Gray, Germany’s Cold War: The Global Campaign to Isolate East Germany type of, 1949-1969, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), 30.

<77> Ibid, 30.

<78> Harriboy, Driving the Soviets, 121.

<79> Kempe, Berlin 1961, 22.

<80> Ibid, 21

<81> Harriboy, Driving the Soviets, 121.

<82> Ibid, 121.

<83> Klein and also Sutterlin, Berlin: From Symbol, 56.

<84> Ibid, 56.

<85> Kempe, Berlin 1961, 32.

<86> Williamkid, First Steps Towards, xiii.

<87> Ibid, 54

<88> Shick, The Berlin Dilemma, 113.

<89> Ibid, 114.

<90> Kempe, Berlin 1961, 33.

<91> Kempe, Berlin 1961, 33.

<92> Ibid, 34.

<93> Shick, The Berlin Situation, 140.

<94> Hertle, The Berlin Wall surface, 37.

<95> Major, Behind the Berlin, 111.

<96> Catudal, Kennedy and also the Berlin, 211.

<97> Major, Behind the Berlin, 115.

See more: The Monoprotic Acid From Among The Following Is A, Monoprotic Acid Definition

<98> Ibid, 108.

Written by: Emily TsuiWritten at: College of TorontoWritten for: Professor Vasilis DimitriadisDate written: March 2014